‘Overview of ASF           Impact andSurveillance in Kenya’   By:     Joseph M. Macharia           Jane W.K. Githinji     ...
African Swine Fever (ASF)   First described from Kenya in 1910    (Montgomery, 1921)   Defined as a highly contagious vi...
Reported ASF Outbreaks       SUDAN                                                                                        ...
ASF Outbreaks - 1994      SUDAN                                                                                           ...
ASF Outbreaks - 2001      SUDAN                                                                                           ...
ASF Outbreaks – 2006/07 SUDAN                                                                                          ETH...
ASF Outbreaks – 2010/11        SUDAN                                                                                      ...
ASF Outbreaks – Total Districts Confirmed       SUDAN                                                                     ...
Laboratory Testing prior to 2006   Testing Laboratories:       Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, UK       Onderst...
From 2006: CISA-INIA, ILRI   Tests used:      Detection of ASFV genomic DNA by PCR and sequencing      Virus isolation ...
ELISA vs PCR/Virus IsolationResults from CVL Kabete & CISA-INIA, March 07CVL Lab. Sample                          Source  ...
Capacity for Surveillance   Limited - FAO TCP/KEN/6612 provided    some assistance in Strengthening of    Laboratory Diag...
Kenya: Laboratory Network  SUDAN                                                                                          ...
Clinical Signs   Major Clinical Signs observed:       Cyanosis of the ears, perineum and ventrum         Fever – Approx...
Other Observations   All age groups are affected   The general body condition on most farms – fair    to poor   Mean mo...
Gross Pathology   Purple coloration of the skin   Haemorrhages throughout most of the    internal organs   Lymph nodes ...
Control and Eradication   Implementation procedure in accordance with the    Animal Diseases Act CAP 364 and the Pig Indu...
Control and Eradication contd.   DVS appoints a team to coordinate surveillance,    control and eradication of the diseas...
Control and Eradication contd.   Instructions to pig farmers:       Not to allow visitors in their piggeries. Persons/ve...
Main Features of Kenyan Outbreaks –Questionnaire   All farms fed their pigs on un-boiled hotel left-overs (swill),    wit...
Main Features of KenyanOutbreaks – contd.   The swine production units on these farms can be described as a loose    func...
Challenges of Eradication   Some farms have quite a big pig stock;   Low prices offered by the butchers;   Lack of comp...
References   Montgomery R.E. (1921) A Form of Swine Fever occurring in British    East Africa (Kenya Colony) J. Comp. Pat...
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Overview of ASF impact and surveillance in Kenya

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Presented by Joseph M. Macharia, Jane W.K. Githinji and Jacqueline L. Kasiiti at the African Swine Fever Diagnostics, Surveillance, Epidemiology and Control Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya, 20-21 July 2011

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Overview of ASF impact and surveillance in Kenya

  1. 1. ‘Overview of ASF Impact andSurveillance in Kenya’ By: Joseph M. Macharia Jane W.K. Githinji Jacqueline L. Kasiiti Central Veterinary Laboratories, Kabete
  2. 2. African Swine Fever (ASF) First described from Kenya in 1910 (Montgomery, 1921) Defined as a highly contagious viral disease with high mortality Natural hosts are pigs, warthogs, bush pigs, and giant forest hogs. The argasid tick (ornithodorous moubata porcinus) can serve both as vectors & reservoirs It is a notifiable disease in Kenya – suspect cases must be reported to the DVS. Montgomery R.E. (1921) A Form of Swine Fever occurring in British East Africa (Kenya Colony) J. Comp. Pathol. 34: 159 - 191.
  3. 3. Reported ASF Outbreaks SUDAN ETHIOPIA TURK ANA Laikipia MANDERA MARSABIT 1954 UGANDA WES PO KOT T WAJIR MT. EL GO N TRANS- NZOIA E MAR AKWET . S MBURU A ISIOL O SOMALIA BARING O BUNGO MA Kiambu UASIN GI SHU BUSIA KAKAMEG A LAIKI PIA NYAMBENE NANDI V HIGA I MERU KISUMU THARAKA S AY I A NYANDARUA KERICHO NITH I NAKURU NYE I R 1958 HOMA_BAY KIRINYAG A NYAMIR A E BU M M RAN GA U MWI NGI GARISSA KISII BOMET MIG ORI TRANS- MARA THIK A KIAMB U KURIA NAIROB I NAROK MACHAK OS TANA R IVER KITU I MAKUENI KAJIADO LAMU TANZANIA NTrans-Nzoia KILIFI TAITA TAV TA E MO MBASA KWALE 1964
  4. 4. ASF Outbreaks - 1994 SUDAN ETHIOPIA  30 farms comprising a total of 1442 TURK ANA MANDERA pigs with a MARSABIT mean stocking UGANDA WES PO KOT T WAJIR density of 48 MT. EL GO N TRANS- NZOIA E MAR AKWET . S MBURU A ISIOL O SOMALIA 102, min (sd BARING O BUSIA BUNGO MA KAKAMEG A UASIN GI SHU 2, max 550). LAIKI PIA NYAMBENEKiambu NANDI V HIGA I MERU KISUMU THARAKA S AY I A NYANDARUA KERICHO NITH I NAKURU NYE I R ASF KIRINYAG A  HOMA_BAY NYAMIR A E BU M M RAN GA U MWI NGI GARISSA KISII BOMET Thika MIG ORI THIK A confirmed in TRANS- MARA KIAMB U KURIA NAIROB I NAROK MACHAK OS July 1994 but TANA R IVER KITU I MAKUENIKajiado KAJIADO LAMU few farmers TANZANIA and someNairobi TAITA TAV TA E KILIFI N vets. noticed it as early as 1994 MO MBASA KWALE April.
  5. 5. ASF Outbreaks - 2001 SUDAN ETHIOPIA TURK ANA MANDERA MARSABIT UGANDA WES PO KOT T WAJIR MT. EL GO N TRANS- NZOIA E MAR AKWET . S MBURU A ISIOL O SOMALIA BARING O BUNGO MA UASIN GI SHU BUSIA KAKAMEG A LAIKI PIA NYAMBENE NANDI V HIGA I MERU KISUMU THARAKA S AY I A NYANDARUA KERICHO NITH I NAKURUKiambu NYE I R HOMA_BAY NYAMIR A KISII BOMET M RAN GA U KIRINYAG A E BU M MWI NGI GARISSA  From August MIG ORI 2001, 11 TRANS- MARA THIK A KIAMB U KURIA NAIROB I NAROK MACHAK OS Thika KAJIADO MAKUENI KITU I TANA R IVER LAMU farms comprising aNairobi TANZANIA KILIFI N total of 9000 TAITA TAV TA E 2001 KWALE MO MBASA pigs.
  6. 6. ASF Outbreaks – 2006/07 SUDAN ETHIOPIA Kiambu TURK ANA MANDERA Thika MARSABIT NairobiUGANDA WES PO KOT T WAJIR Eldoret S MBURU A SOMALIA Nakuru TRANS- NZOIA E MAR AKWET . MT. EL GO N ISIOL O BARING O BUNGO MA UASIN GI SHU BUSIA KAKAMEG A LAIKI PIA NYAMBENE Kisumu NANDI V HIGA I MERU KISUMU THARAKA S AY I A NYANDARUA KERICHO NITH I NAKURU NYE I R HOMA_BAY KIRINYAG A NYAMIR A E BU M M RAN GA U MWI NGI GARISSA KISII BOMET MIG ORI KURIA TRANS- MARA NAROK KIAMB U THIK A NAIROB I MACHAK OS KITU I TANA R IVER Busia. 2006/07 MAKUENI KAJIADO LAMU TANZANIA TAITA TAV TA E KILIFI N  From KWALE MO MBASA November 2006.
  7. 7. ASF Outbreaks – 2010/11 SUDAN ETHIOPIA Kiambu TURK ANA MANDERA Thika MARSABIT Nairobi UGANDA WES PO KOT T WAJIR Kajiado S MBURU A SOMALIA Kakamega TRANS- NZOIA E MAR AKWET . MT. EL GO N ISIOL O BARING O BUNGO MA UASIN GI SHU BUSIA KAKAMEG A LAIKI PIA NYAMBENE Kisumu NANDI V HIGA I MERU KISUMU THARAKA S AY I A NYANDARUA KERICHO NITH I NAKURU NYE I R HOMA_BAY KIRINYAG A NYAMIR A E BU M M RAN GA U MWI NGI GARISSA KISII BOMET MIG ORI KURIA TRANS- MARA NAROK KIAMB U THIK A NAIROB I MACHAK OS KITU I TANA R IVER Busia.Kakamega 2010/11 MAKUENI KAJIADO LAMU TANZANIA 2010 TAITA TAV TA E KILIFI N  From KWALE MO MBASA September 2010.
  8. 8. ASF Outbreaks – Total Districts Confirmed SUDAN ETHIOPIA TURK ANA MANDERA MARSABIT UGANDA WES PO KOT T WAJIR MT. EL GO N TRANS- NZOIA E MAR AKWET . S MBURU A ISIOL O SOMALIA BARING O BUNGO MA UASIN GI SHU BUSIA KAKAMEG A LAIKI PIA NYAMBENE NANDI V HIGA I MERU KISUMU THARAKA S AY I A NYANDARUA KERICHO NITH I NAKURU NYE I R HOMA_BAY KIRINYAG A NYAMIR A E BU M M RAN GA U MWI NGI GARISSA KISII BOMET MIG ORI TRANS- MARA THIK A KIAMB U KURIA NAIROB I NAROK MACHAK OS TANA R IVER KITU I MAKUENI KAJIADO LAMU TANZANIA KILIFI N TAITA TAV TA E MO MBASA KWALE
  9. 9. Laboratory Testing prior to 2006 Testing Laboratories:  Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, UK  Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Exotic Diseases Division, South Africa Tests performed were:  Virus isolation in bone marrow macrophage cell cultures  Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)  ELISA for serum samples
  10. 10. From 2006: CISA-INIA, ILRI Tests used:  Detection of ASFV genomic DNA by PCR and sequencing  Virus isolation in primary culture cells.  indirect ELISA – OIE Manual of diagnosis (OIE, 2004)  INGENASA ELISA commercial kit for comparison.
  11. 11. ELISA vs PCR/Virus IsolationResults from CVL Kabete & CISA-INIA, March 07CVL Lab. Sample Source Serology PCR VirusNo district IsolationP2 Liver, heart, lung Kiambu Negative Positive PositiveP3 Spleen, LN gastric, Kidney Eldoret Negative Positive PositiveP4 Spleen Nakuru Negative Positive PositiveP49 Serum (1) Kisumu Negative Positive PositiveP7 Sera (1-5) Nakuru Negative Positive PositiveP8 Sera (1-8) Eldoret Negative Positive PositiveP9 Liver, Lung, Spleen, Intestine Busia Negative Positive Positive
  12. 12. Capacity for Surveillance Limited - FAO TCP/KEN/6612 provided some assistance in Strengthening of Laboratory Diagnosis of African Swine Fever (ASF) – ended 2000 – in collaboration with Dr. Mary Louise-Penrith of OVI. Need for capacity at CVL Kabete to confirm ASF using PCR Need for a surveillance program for ASF – And Contingency Plan
  13. 13. Kenya: Laboratory Network SUDAN ETHIOPIA TURK ANA MANDERA MARSABIT UGANDA WES PO KOT T WAJIR MT. EL GO N TRANS- NZOIA E MAR AKWET . S MBURU A ISIOL O SOMALIA BARING O BUNGO MA UASIN GI SHU BUSIA KAKAMEG A LAIKI PIA NYAMBENE NANDI V HIGA I MERU KISUMU THARAKA S AY I A NYANDARUA KERICHO NITH I NAKURU NYE I R HOMA_BAY KIRINYAG A NYAMIR A E BU M M RAN GA U MWI NGI GARISSA KISII BOMET MIG ORI TRANS- MARA THIK A KIAMB U KURIA NAIROB I NAROK MACHAK OS TANA R IVER KITU I MAKUENI KAJIADO LAMU TANZANIA KILIFI N TAITA TAV TA E MO MBASA KWALE
  14. 14. Clinical Signs Major Clinical Signs observed:  Cyanosis of the ears, perineum and ventrum  Fever – Approx. 410C for those in the initial stages  Hypothermia & difficult breathing – advanced stages  Innappetance/Anorexia  Lethargy  Recumbency/Moribund followed by death. Less commonly observed clinical signs:  Frothy salivation  Blood tinged diarrhoea  Coughing and emaciation
  15. 15. Other Observations All age groups are affected The general body condition on most farms – fair to poor Mean morbidity – 43% (sd 28%, min 5%, max 83%) Mean mortality – 33% (sd 26%, min 2%, max 77%) – may be due to intervention measures – subclinical?
  16. 16. Gross Pathology Purple coloration of the skin Haemorrhages throughout most of the internal organs Lymph nodes markedly swollen, reddened, haemorrhagic and look like blood clots Massive clotting in the urinary bladder; Excessive oedema in body cavities, lungs and the pericardium Spleen markedly enlarged and congested.
  17. 17. Control and Eradication Implementation procedure in accordance with the Animal Diseases Act CAP 364 and the Pig Industry Act CAP 361 of the Laws of Kenya Affected farms placed under immediate provisional quarantine, pending laboratory confirmation. Affected farms and administrative divisions consequently placed under full quarantines. DVS issues press release to alert public on social economic importance of ASF and the eradication measures put in place. Quarantine announcements by the concerned District Veterinary Officers.
  18. 18. Control and Eradication contd. DVS appoints a team to coordinate surveillance, control and eradication of the disease. Team meets pig owners, butchers & department extension staff of affected areas. Team administers questionnaire to get ASF-related information covering broad areas like:  general management and housing, movement of pigs from within & outside Kenya, health care & time of disease onset. DVS sends a circular detailing control measures to VOs.  VOs instructed to develop inventories of pig keepers, to determine the population of pigs, to identify all infected farms and to institute strict pig movement controls to stop spread of the disease.
  19. 19. Control and Eradication contd. Instructions to pig farmers:  Not to allow visitors in their piggeries. Persons/vehicles go thru’ Magadi soda placed at entrance.  Avoid feeding pigs with swill.  To house all roaming pigs.  Isolate and kill clinically sick and in-contact pigs and incinerate or deep bury them under veterinary supervision.  Clean well and disinfect depopulated premises. Re-stock after six months if sentinel pigs fail to become infected.  Slaughter ‘Healthy’ pigs from infected farms at premises designated to slaughter only pigs from infected farms.  Pigs from clean farms must be accompanied by a no objection letter, a health certificate and a movement permit to the other slaughter houses.  Bury offal six feet deep & cover with Magadi soda or incinerate.
  20. 20. Main Features of Kenyan Outbreaks –Questionnaire All farms fed their pigs on un-boiled hotel left-overs (swill), with a few of them supplementing with commercial feeds. Uncontrolled and sometimes illegal movement of pigs and pig products within the country and into the country No spreading into other districts due to strict quarantine procedures Freely roaming pigs, bush pigs and warthogs. Wild pigs are prevalent in Thika, Ngong, Karen & around Kikuyu township. Permits for importation of pork products obtained from Ministry of Health and Customs clearance when Legal Notice No. 28 of 2000 allows only the DVS to issue import permits for animals, animal products and by-products. The disease is noticed long before it is confirmed.
  21. 21. Main Features of KenyanOutbreaks – contd. The swine production units on these farms can be described as a loose function of farrow-to-finish, farrow-to-wean and feeder operations; with the latter dominating. No farm practices all-in, all-out production system. Majority of the farmers buy their replacement stock from Kiambu district. Nonetheless, most of them were unwilling to name the farms of origin. Only 10% of the farms have double fencing for their piggeries. Only 2 slaughter houses kept some records of source (owner, district of origin, permit number and date of issue, and number of pigs transported) and meat inspection (identity of animal with respect to owner, reasons for condemnation and date). Apart from Ndumboini slaughter house in Kiambu district not keeping any records, they often procure pigs from as far as Busia district, probably from across the border. The average pig keeping experience of farmers is 6 years, and none of them is licensed. The health care services offered on these farms are through private veterinarian (46%), government staff (15%), farm manager (15%) and none (24%).
  22. 22. Challenges of Eradication Some farms have quite a big pig stock; Low prices offered by the butchers; Lack of compensation by the government; Lack of cooperation and plain stubbornness. Farmers unwilling to name sources of replacement stock Lack of knowledge as to the actual population at risk Failure to license piggeries Inadequate communication between DVS & private sector The Pig Industry Control Board is not operational
  23. 23. References Montgomery R.E. (1921) A Form of Swine Fever occurring in British East Africa (Kenya Colony) J. Comp. Pathol. 34: 159 - 191. Kenya Department of Veterinary Services Reports OVI, South Africa Laboratory Results CISA-INIA Laboratory Results Acknowledgements Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) CISA - INIA Spain Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, U.K. Onderstepoort Institute for Exotic Diseases, Republic of South Africa Food an Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) THANKS
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