Options for increasing livestock water productivity in the Nile basin

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Presented by D. Peden, M. Alemayehu, T. Amede, H. Faki, A. Haileslassie, M. Herrero, D. Mpairwe, G. Taddesse and P. van Breugel at the Nile Basin Development Forum, Khartoum, Sudan, 17-19 November 2008

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Options for increasing livestock water productivity in the Nile basin

  1. 1. Options for increasing livestock water productivity in the Nile basin D. Peden, M. Alemayehu, T. Amede, H. Faki, A. Haileslassie, M. Herrero, D. Mpairwe, G. Taddesse and P. van Breugel Nile Basin Development Forum Khartoum, Sudan, 17-19 November 2008 (A CPWF PN37 output)
  2. 2. Key messages <ul><li>Livestock are major water users in the Nile Basin. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities exist to use water more: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effectively, productively, profitably & sustainably </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By integrating water and livestock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In investment, development & management </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Partners <ul><li>Agricultural Economics and Policy Research Center (Sudan) </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Resources Research Corporation, (Sudan) </li></ul><ul><li>Care-Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>Ethiopian Institute for Agricultural Research </li></ul><ul><li>International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) </li></ul><ul><li>International Water Management Institute (IWMI) </li></ul><ul><li>Makerere University (Uganda) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Outline <ul><li>Importance of livestock in the Nile. </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock water productivity framework. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the implications for the Nile? </li></ul><ul><li>What next? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Distribution of Nile livestock systems 1 34 61 2,993 Basin total <1 84 6 51 Other 3 <1 73 27 25 Eritrea <1 78 13 47 Kenya <1 76 11 86 Tanzania <1 72 19 204 Uganda 11 1 87 286 Egypt <1 71 23 362 Ethiopia <1 22 75 1,933 Sudan Mixed irrigated Mixed rainfed Grazing Livestock systems (% land area in basin ) Land area in basin (1000 km 2 ) Country    
  6. 6. Distribution of Nile livestock & people *** Based on data synthesis – basin census needed 170 155 41 47 67 Basin total 12 4 1 2 1 Other 3 1 2 1 1 1 Eritrea 12 7 2 1 4 Kenya 7 9 3 1 6 Tanzania 23 9 3 1 5 Uganda 62 8 2 3 3 Egypt 25 23 4 5 14 Ethiopia 27 92 26 32 34 Sudan*** People Total Goats Sheep Cattle In basin populations (millions) *** Country
  7. 7. Nile Livestock: Important water users <ul><li>Livestock outnumber people. </li></ul><ul><li>50% of rainfall lost in grazing lands. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal feed > human food demand </li></ul><ul><li>Water for feed > water for food. </li></ul><ul><li>Current management degrades land & H 2 0. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of grazing lands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most rural domestic water contaminated. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixed temperate mixed crop-livestock systems - hot spots for action. </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is livestock water productivity (An entry point for INRM, IWRM & IRBM) <ul><li>Benefits: Meat, milk, hides, traction power, manure, eggs, whole animal sales, drought security, wealth savings, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Depleted water: Transpiration, evaporation, discharge & contamination. </li></ul><ul><li>Units: US$/m 3 but alternatives exist. </li></ul><ul><li>(Only a few species considered so far) </li></ul>LWP = ∑(Net beneficial outputs) ∑ (Depleted water)
  9. 9. In - flow Rain Surface in-flow Agriculture + ecosystem Benefits ** Non- productive losses Transpiration Basic water accounting framework Depletion Ground water Infiltration River basin Watershed Community Household & farm Herd Animal
  10. 10. In - flow Rain Surface in-flow Meat, milk, hides, traction, manure, etc. Runoff Discharge Evaporation Contamination Grain Residues By-products Fodder Pasture Livestock water productivity challenge Other losses Transpiration Ground water Infiltration <ul><li>More: </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Transpiration </li></ul><ul><li>Recharge </li></ul><ul><li>Less: </li></ul><ul><li>Runoff </li></ul><ul><li>Evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>Contamination </li></ul>
  11. 11. In - flow Rain Surface in-flow Runoff Discharge Evaporation Contamination Grain Residues By-products Fodder Pasture Four LWP improving strategies: Feed sourcing Other losses Transpiration Ground water Infiltration 1. Select low water cost feeds Meat, milk, hides, traction, manure, etc.
  12. 12. Select low water cost feeds <ul><li>Crop residues </li></ul><ul><li>Crop by-products </li></ul><ul><li>Succulents in dry lands unsuited for crops </li></ul>Molasses from sugar cane (Sudan) Crop residues (Teff) Pastoral Sudan
  13. 13. In - flow Rain Surface in-flow Runoff Discharge Evaporation Contamination Grain Residues By-products Fodder Pasture Imported feed Four LWP improving strategies: Animal Production Other losses Transpiration Ground water Infiltration <ul><li>Select </li></ul><ul><li>low water </li></ul><ul><li>cost feed </li></ul>Meat, milk, hides, traction, manure, etc. 2. Enhance animal production
  14. 14. In - flow Rain Surface in-flow Runoff Discharge Evaporation Contamination Four LWP improving strategies: Animal Production Other losses Transpiration Ground water Infiltration <ul><li>Select </li></ul><ul><li>low water </li></ul><ul><li>cost feed </li></ul>Meat, milk, hides, traction, manure, etc. <ul><li>Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Vet health </li></ul><ul><li>Husbandry </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing </li></ul>Grain Residues By-products Fodder Pasture Imported feed
  15. 15. Enhance animal production (Reduce stress, mortality &morbidity) <ul><li>Select drought hardy animals </li></ul><ul><li>Promote marketing of dairy products </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt zero grazing and watering </li></ul>
  16. 16. In - flow Rain Surface in-flow Runoff Discharge Evaporation Contamination Grain Residues By-products Fodder Pasture Imported feed Four LWP improving strategies: Conserve water Other losses Transpiration Ground water Infiltration <ul><li>Select </li></ul><ul><li>low water </li></ul><ul><li>cost feed </li></ul>Meat, milk, hides, traction, manure, etc. 2. Enhance animal production 3. Conserve water
  17. 17. In - flow Rain Surface in-flow Runoff Discharge Evaporation Contamination Grain Residues By-products Fodder Pasture Imported feed Four LWP improving strategies: Conserve water Other losses Transpiration Ground water Infiltration <ul><li>Select </li></ul><ul><li>low water </li></ul><ul><li>cost feed </li></ul>Meat, milk, hides, traction, manure, etc. <ul><li>3. Manage </li></ul><ul><li>soil </li></ul><ul><li>vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>green water </li></ul><ul><li>watering </li></ul><ul><li>waste </li></ul>2. Enhance animal production
  18. 18. Conserve water (Vegetation and drinking management) <ul><li>Limit animal access to open water and riparian habitats; use drinking troughs. </li></ul><ul><li>Rehabilitate & maintain rangelands; limit animal numbers & re-establish pasture </li></ul>Before After Before After
  19. 19. Conserve water & soil <ul><li>Highland priorities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manure management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grazing management </li></ul></ul>Source: Hurni (1987) 5 21 51 Grazing 42 45 13 Mixed crop-livestock systems t/ha/year % national loss Estimated soil loss Area (%) Land-use in Ethiopia
  20. 20. In - flow Rain Surface in-flow Runoff Discharge Evaporation Contamination Grain Residues By-products Fodder Pasture Imported feed Four LWP improving strategies: Watering sites Other losses Transpiration Ground water Infiltration <ul><li>Select </li></ul><ul><li>low water </li></ul><ul><li>cost feed </li></ul>Meat, milk, hides, traction, manure, etc. 3. Conserve water 2. Enhance animal production 4. Strategic Livestock watering
  21. 21. Balance feed & water distribution to increase LWP <ul><li>Low LWP near water points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overgrazing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain produces little feed.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low LWP far from watering points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drinking water constraints prevent grazing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit grazing near watering points. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop new watering points where surplus feed exists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult but needed! </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Implications for the Nile <ul><li>Half of rainfall lost as ET in grazing lands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage ET for more benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift E to T </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More depleted in mixed crop-livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Potential to reduce water use by 50% to 90%. </li></ul><ul><li>4 helpful strategies (policy & practice) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed sources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopt existing animal science tools. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal management to conserve water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed-water-animal balance. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Implications for the Nile <ul><li>Integrate crop-livestock-water development for improved production, livelihoods and sustainability. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify areas to promote and reduce livestock production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking into account trade-offs with other water users. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. What next? <ul><li>Build on agreement between NBI & CGIAR. </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen collaboration between livestock subsector, NBI & member states. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve coverage and quality of livestock & vegetation data sets for the Nile Basin. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate in policy development that ensures livestock contribute to poverty reduction, benefit sharing and sustainability. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and encourage local level livestock-water management intervention options. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Key messages <ul><li>Livestock are major water users in the Nile Basin. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities exist to use water more: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effectively, productively, profitably & sustainably </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By integrating water and livestock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In investment, development & management </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. THANK YOU!

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