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Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study
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Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study

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Presentation by Sabine Homann-Kee Tui and Andre van Rooyen for the SLP Crop Residues Project Review and Planning Meeting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 9-10 December 2010.

Presentation by Sabine Homann-Kee Tui and Andre van Rooyen for the SLP Crop Residues Project Review and Planning Meeting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 9-10 December 2010.

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  • 1. Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Southern Africa case study Sabine Homann-Kee Tui and Andre van Rooyen SLP Crop Residues Project Review and Planning Meeting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 9-10 December 2010.
  • 2. Drivers and trends of agriculture in southern Africa Source: Adopted from Capacity Development Initiative in Modernizing Food Systems—Michigan State, Makerere, Stellenbosch and Pretoria Universities, 2010) Strong urbanization and income growth Growing food markets and changes in composition (more meat, dairy, fresh and processed food) 5-6 times the marketed food between 2010 and 2050
  • 3. <ul><li>Increasing demand for livestock products </li></ul>Source: www.sadctrade.org
  • 4. <ul><li>Low mono-modal rain </li></ul><ul><li>High rainfall variability </li></ul><ul><li>Limited water </li></ul><ul><li>Low inherent soil fertility </li></ul><ul><li>Strong predicted impact of climate change </li></ul>Source: ICRISAT GIS, 2010 Dry SAT Wet SAT   
  • 5. Trends in crop production Sluggish growth of maize area harvested, while all other crops are stagnant Source: FAO Stat
  • 6. Stagnant sorghum area harvested in SA as compared to area expansion in WCA and EA
  • 7. Sluggish growth in maize yields in Malawi, while all other crops are stagnant Source: FAO Stat
  • 8. Sluggish growth in maize yields in middle and low income countries, against drastic increases in higher income countries Maize production from surplus (123% self sufficiency in 1970s) to deficit (97%) in 2000-04 (Minot, 2007) Source: Olubode-Awosola, et al., 2008
  • 9. Trends in livestock production Stagnant cattle populations Declining number of cattle per capita The number of goats has doubled since the 1980s
  • 10. Source: Ncube et al., 2009 Reasons for limited grain legumes in Zimbabwe
  • 11. Crop livestock systems in the project countries: Low Low High Mozambique Malawi Zimbabwe Crop production Livestock production Where are countries now? What criteria define that? Where will they be in 10 years? How can we facilitate the change?
  • 12. Context that influences crop residue utilization Mozambique Zimbabwe Malawi Economic growth Population in agriculture (%, 2005) Agriculture in GDP (%, 2000-06) Annual agric. GDP growth (% 2006-07) Agric. expenditure (% nat. budget, 2006) Livestock / agric.GDP (%, 2002) Food aid ('000t grain equ. 2003-05) 75.4 23.2 7.0 3.9 14.8 171.5 59.7 14.1 -5.4 N/A (6.2 2004) 34.0 238.8 75.0 33.6 7.4 13.2 9.9 116.5 Socio economics Human population density (pers km -2 ) Dual agricultural sectors HIV/AIDS (% adults, 2002) 23.6 Existing, small scale farmers and estates 12.2 33.2 Broke recently, new chances for small scale farmers 24.6. 126.0 Existing, small scale farmers and estates 14.2 Policy Focus of agricultural policies Land tenure Crops; frequent changes poorly implemented Customary and title deeds Crops; poorly adjusted to small scale farmers Recent fast track land reform Crops; subsidized inputs, irrigation Customary and title deeds
  • 13. Mozambique Zimbabwe Malawi Farming systems Crop livestock integration Market integration Low Low Emerging Adjusting High Limited Crops Area harvested to cereals (‘000 000 ha, 2005) Fertilizer consumption (kg ha -1, 2010) Fertilizer cons. growth rate (%, 2002-05) 2.0 5 -35.5 1.7 >50 -5.8 1.5 39 23.7 Livestock Livestock populations (Mio heads, 2002) Stocking densities (LU/ agric. land km 2 , 2002) Net meat exports as % of production (2002) Net meat imports as % of consumption (2002) 1.3 cattle 0.5 shoats 2 0.0 9.2 5.7 cattle 3.6 shoats 17 10.8 0.0 0.8 cattle 1.8 shoats 18 0.0 2.2
  • 14. Site characteristics and crop residue management Changara in Tete, Mozambique District Area size (km -2 ) Human population (n) Average annual rain (mm) 8,660 159,000 644 Socio-economic HH headship (% female) Literacy of hhh (%) Remittances Distance to cities Main economic activity < 15 > 75 Few, cross border trade 96 (Tete), 1300 (Maputo) Livestock and forestry Crop production Cropland (ha hh -1 ) Crops Cropland expansion Manure management Use of external inputs Mechanization Irrigation 4 Maize, sorghum, millet, groundnuts Shifting cultivation Limited Limited No No
  • 15. Livestock production HH with livestock (%) Mean herd size (n) 1 st , 2 nd livestock function Mortality rates (annual,%) Off-take rates (annual,%) Cattle 21.5 15 cash, draft 10 5-10 Goats 48 20 cash, meat 10-20 10-20 Challenges in crop and livestock production and marketing <ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Low production and market orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of production inputs and support services </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of basic market infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers have very little incentives to invest in agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Poor implementation of agricultural policies </li></ul>
  • 16. Nkayi in Matabeleland North, Zimbabwe 1990 2000 2009 Source: Chirima et al., 2010 Forested land Cultivated land Deforested land Water body District Area size (km -2 ) Human population (n) Average annual rain (mm) 2,055 111,118 625 Socio-economic HH headship (% female) Literacy of hhh (%) Remittances Distance to cities (km) Main economic activity < 40 > 85 Labor migration (towns, RSA) 120 (Bulawayo) Crop and livestock production Crop production Cropland (ha hh -1 ) Crops Cropland expansion Manure management Use of external inputs Mechanization Irrigation 3 Maize, sorghum, millet, groundnuts 13 % total area, 1990-2009 60% hh 40%hh fertilizer, 30%hh improved seeds 0 10% hh
  • 17. Livestock production HH with livestock (%) Mean herd size (n) 1 st , 2 nd livestock function Mortality rates (annual,%) Off-take rates (annual,%) Cattle 70 6 draft, meat 10-20 <5 Goats 50 5 cash, meat 20-30 5-10 Challenges in crop and livestock production and marketing <ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Low production and little market orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Poor access to production inputs and support services </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock diseases and insufficient dry season feed </li></ul><ul><li>Soil and rangeland degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Non-functional markets </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete agricultural policies </li></ul>
  • 18. Mzimba Northern province, Malawi District Area size (km -2 ) Human population (n) Average annual rain (mm) 10,382 724,873 800 Socio-economic HH headship (% female) Literacy of hhh (%) Remittances Distance to cities (km) Main economic activity < 20 > 85 Labor migration (RSA) 250 (Lilongwe) Crop production Crop production Cropland (ha hh -1 ) Crops for subsistence Cropland expansion Manure management Use of external inputs Mechanization Irrigation 0.5-1 Maize, sorghum, groundnuts, pigeon peas, soybeans No Few Majority (fertilizer, seeds) No Few; recently enhanced (maize)
  • 19. Livestock production HH with livestock (%) Mean herd size (n) 1 st , 2 nd livestock function Mortality rates (annual,%) Off-take rates (annual,%) Cattle 20 7 Culture, draft High Low Goats 20-40 5 Cash, meat High Limited Challenges in crop and livestock production and marketing <ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Limited availability of land, livestock and livestock inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Limited formal market systems </li></ul><ul><li>Soil and rangeland degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of agricultural policies for capacity strengthening, infrastructure development, private sector investments </li></ul>
  • 20. Crop residue utilization <ul><li>Mozambique </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive grazing by cattle and goats after harvest </li></ul><ul><li>Zimbabwe </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging intensification: Grazing with other farmers’ livestock (75%), stall feeding (15%), left as mulch (6%), and also used with manure </li></ul><ul><li>New institutions to govern livestock access to residues </li></ul><ul><li>Malawi </li></ul><ul><li>Intensified crop residue utilization: Grazing, mulching ground nuts </li></ul><ul><li>Stall feeding residues is encouraged </li></ul><ul><li>Potential to use more residues from irrigation plots </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging feed markets, e.g. for groundnut stover </li></ul>
  • 21. Source: Homann et al., 2006
  • 22. Avenues for improved CR use? <ul><li>Mozambique </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge potential for expanding crop and livestock production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CR less important, since large rangelands available (stover index 11.1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive investments in infrastructure and services required </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zimbabwe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First steps of intensification - growing interest in drought tolerant crops (sorghum, long duration varieties) and animals (indigenous breeds), intercropping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing importance of CR regulation, storage and processing while rangelands are still available but poorly managed (stover index 0.5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjustment of support strategies towards crop livestock intensification (soil fertility management, dual purpose varieties, CR processing) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Malawi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities for crop livestock intensification and specialization towards high value products such as dairy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of CR to feed livestock utmost important, due to lack of alternative feed: CR processing and marketing (stover index 24.0): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revitalizing support strategies that could encourage investments in small scale agriculture </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. Thank you! Acknowledgements Felisberto Maute, IIAM Mozambique Shadreck Ncube, Matopos Research Zimbabwe Daniel Nkombini, Matopos Research Zimbabwe Andre van Rooyen, ICRISAT Zimbabwe Bright Mc Donald, ICRISAT Zimbabwe Isaac Minde, ICRISAT Zimbabwe Timothy Gondwe, Bunda College Malawi

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