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Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: regional case studies. Progress and preliminary research findings for East African sites
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: regional case studies. Progress and preliminary research findings for East African sites
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: regional case studies. Progress and preliminary research findings for East African sites
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: regional case studies. Progress and preliminary research findings for East African sites
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: regional case studies. Progress and preliminary research findings for East African sites
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: regional case studies. Progress and preliminary research findings for East African sites
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: regional case studies. Progress and preliminary research findings for East African sites
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: regional case studies. Progress and preliminary research findings for East African sites
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: regional case studies. Progress and preliminary research findings for East African sites
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: regional case studies. Progress and preliminary research findings for East African sites
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: regional case studies. Progress and preliminary research findings for East African sites
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: regional case studies. Progress and preliminary research findings for East African sites
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: regional case studies. Progress and preliminary research findings for East African sites
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: regional case studies. Progress and preliminary research findings for East African sites
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: regional case studies. Progress and preliminary research findings for East African sites
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: regional case studies. Progress and preliminary research findings for East African sites
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: regional case studies. Progress and preliminary research findings for East African sites
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: regional case studies. Progress and preliminary research findings for East African sites
Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: regional case studies. Progress and preliminary research findings for East African sites
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Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: regional case studies. Progress and preliminary research findings for East African sites

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Presentation by Kindu Mekonnen and Alan Duncan for the SLP Crop Residues Project Review and Planning Meeting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 9-10 December 2010

Presentation by Kindu Mekonnen and Alan Duncan for the SLP Crop Residues Project Review and Planning Meeting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 9-10 December 2010

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  • 1. Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Progress and preliminary research findings from East African sites <ul><ul><li>Presentation by Kindu Mekonnen and Alan Duncan for the SLP Crop Residues Project Review and Planning Meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 9-10 Dec 2010 </li></ul></ul>
  • 2. Contents of the presentation <ul><li>Study sites in East Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Project progress in EA </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary research findings </li></ul><ul><li>a) Characteristics of the 3 study sites </li></ul><ul><li>b) Dominant crop and livestock types in EA sites </li></ul><ul><li>c) Cultural practices in the EA sites </li></ul><ul><li>d) Major crop residue types in EA sites </li></ul><ul><li>e) Uses of crop residues at the 3 EA sites </li></ul><ul><li>f) Trends on the use of crop residues </li></ul><ul><li>g) Drivers/challenges of agriculture in the 3 EA sites </li></ul><ul><li>4. Conclusions </li></ul>
  • 3. 1. Study sites in East Africa Kobo (North-Eastern Eth) and Nekemte (Western Eth)- sites in Ethiopia Kakamega (Western Kenya)- a site in Kenya
  • 4. 2. Project progress in EA <ul><li>Formation of multidisciplinary teams at site level </li></ul><ul><li>(partner institutions) </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of village survey instruments (regional) </li></ul><ul><li>and pre-testing it with 10-12 HHs </li></ul><ul><li>Random selection of villages based on market and </li></ul><ul><li>road access (Near-Near, Near-Far, Far-Near and Far- </li></ul><ul><li>Far) </li></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>Verification/ground-truthing the villages selected </li></ul><ul><li>using Google Earth </li></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>Conduct of the village survey (24 villages) </li></ul><ul><li>HH listing/census data collection of the 24 villages </li></ul><ul><li>Village based survey data entry and prelim. analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation and pretesting the HH survey instruments </li></ul>
  • 7. 3. Preliminary research findings a) Characteristics of the 3 study sites Kobo Nekemte Kakamega Altitude 1416-1634 1748-2418 1426-1719 Major soil types Vertisol Nitisol Oxisol Mean annual RFall (mm) 768 1037 2009 Mean annual temp ( o C ) 30 29 28 Total village population 330-2250 196-391 400-5000 Total village HHs 66-245 35-70 80-1200 Total village land 308-3640 74-164 200-900 Total cultivated land 264-1120 61-149 160-810
  • 8. b) Dominant crop and livestock types in EA sites Kobo Teff, sorghum, maize, chickpea and vegetables Nekemte Maize, teff , sorghum, finger millet, wheat, barley, oat, faba bean, noug, vegetables and beet root, potato, anchote Kakamega Maize , finger millet, sorghum, beans , bambara nuts, groundnuts, vegetables, sweet potatoes, cassava, taro, banana and sugarcane
  • 9. Livestock species Livestock species
  • 10. c) Cultural practices in the EA sites ( % HH practicing ) Manure application in Kakamega Tillage practice in Kobo Kobo Nekemet Kakamega Hand weeding 100 97 98 Chemical fertilizer 0 95 80 Manure application 33 93 47 Tillage by animal 100 100 64 Tillage by tractor 10 0 11 Herbicide application 57 91 0
  • 11. d) Major crop residue types in EA sites Kobo : Tef straw, sorghum stover, maize stover, chickpea hull Nekemte : Tef straw, maize stover, barley straw, wheat straw, faba bean trash, finger millet straw Kakamega : Maize stover, maize cobs, beans straw, sugarcane tops, groundnut hauls, sweet potato vines, banana stems, soya bean straw, millet straws, beans trash, vegetable stalks
  • 12. Uses e) Uses of crop residues at the 3 EA sites
  • 13. f) Trends on the use of crop residues Bars above the lines indicate increase in the last 10 yrs while bars below graphs indicate decreases.
  • 14. g) Drivers/challenges of agriculture in the 3 EA sites Poor and unreliable rainfall – limit crop productivity and biomass production, create shortage of drinking water Kobo : High human population, small land holding, very low employment opportunities Feed shortage – high livestock population, less quantity and quality feed
  • 15. Soil erosion and gully formation – competing farming land and affecting the quality and quantity of crop product and by-products Competing use of CR and dung for fuel, free dung collection, deforestation
  • 16. Nekemte: Soil acidity – high rainfall, P-fixation, Al toxicity- limits crop productivity Declining soil fertility- deforestation, soil erosion, depletion of nutrients, crop and biomass yield reduction Poor infrastructure and market - high price of inputs and low price of products
  • 17. Kakamega: Soil fertility decline- intensive cropping, soil acidity More livestock technological packages, high price of inputs and services High population, low employment opportunity, declining of landholding
  • 18. 4. Conclusions <ul><li>There is adequate rainfall and high diversity of </li></ul><ul><li>crops in Kakamega and Nekemte sites as compared </li></ul><ul><li>to the Kobo site. Hence, intensification and use of </li></ul><ul><li>CR for soil management in the Kakamega and </li></ul><ul><li>Nekemte areas can be possible options to sustain </li></ul><ul><li>land productivity and improve income of farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Competing use of CR is more pronounced in </li></ul><ul><li>Kobo than in other EA sites. Hence, integrated </li></ul><ul><li>interventions can be useful for the Kobo areas to </li></ul><ul><li>maximize the use of CR for sustainable land </li></ul><ul><li>management. </li></ul>
  • 19. <ul><li>Fragmentation of landholdings and over- </li></ul><ul><li>exploitation of the land resources is becoming a </li></ul><ul><li>threat in most study sites because of population </li></ul><ul><li>pressure and abiotic factors. Hence, there is a </li></ul><ul><li>need to create more jobs and wisely manage the </li></ul><ul><li>land to see a better future in the project areas. </li></ul>

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