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Optimizing benefits from crop residues in smallholder mixed systems in Africa and South Asia: A comparison
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Optimizing benefits from crop residues in smallholder mixed systems in Africa and South Asia: A comparison

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Presentation by Diego Valbuena for the SLP Crop Residues Project Review and Planning Meeting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 9-10 December 2010

Presentation by Diego Valbuena for the SLP Crop Residues Project Review and Planning Meeting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 9-10 December 2010

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  • 1. Optimizing benefits from Crop Residues in Smallholder mixed systems in Africa and South Asia: A comparison
    Presentation by Diego Valbuena (ILRI) for the
    SLP Crop Residues Project Review and Planning Meeting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 9-10 Dec 2010
  • 2. A comparison…
    Dinajpur (BD)
    Amhara (ET)
    Generalities
    Cropping
    Livestock
    Crop residues
    Oromia (ET)
    Haryana (IN)
    Mat North (ZW)
    Western
    Kenya
    Rajasthan (IN)
  • 3. 1. Generalities: density vs. village area
    8000
    7000
    6000
    Village area (ha)
    5000
    Mat North (ZW)
    4000
    3000
    2000
    1000
    Haryana (IN)
    Western
    Kenya
    Rajasthan (IN)
    Amhara (ET)
    0
    Oromia (ET)
    Dinajpur (BD)
    0
    5
    10
    15
    20
    Density (persons/ha)
  • 4. 1. Generalities: services & assets
    With mobile phone
    80
    Access formal electricity
    Aggregated %
    60
    Access water (pipe)
    40
    With livestock
    20
    With land
    0
    Amhara
    Dinajpur
    Haryana
    Mat
    Oromia
    Rajasthan
    Western
    North
    Kenya
  • 5. 1. Generalities: food, poverty & literacy
    100
    Milk consumption
    80
    More 1 meal/day
    Aggregated %
    60
    Not receiving aid
    40
    Above poverty line
    20
    Literacy
    0
    Amhara
    Dinajpur
    Haryana
    Mat North
    Oromia
    Rajasthan
    Western
    Kenya
  • 6. 2. Cropping: fertiliser vs. manure application
    Dinajpur (BD)
    Rajasthan (IN)
    100
    Oromia (ET)
    Haryana (IN)
    80
    Mat North (ZW)
    60
    Western
    Kenya
    % hh using manure
    40
    Amhara (ET)
    20
    0
    0
    20
    40
    60
    80
    100
    % hh using fertiliser
  • 7. 2. Cropping: intensification
    100
    Thresher/Combine/Cutter use
    80
    Pesticide
    Aggregated %
    60
    Herbicide application
    40
    Chemical fertiliser use
    20
    Tractor use
    0
    Dinajpur
    Amhara
    Oromia
    Haryana
    Rajastan
    Western
    Mat North
    Kenya
  • 8. 2. Cropping: uses of crop 1
    100
    80
    Amhara (ET): teff
    60
    % later sale
    Dinajpur (BD): rice
    40
    Oromia (ET): most teff
    20
    Western
    Kenya: maize
    Mat North (ZW): maize
    Haryana (IN): rice
    0
    Rajasthan (IN): maize
    0
    20
    40
    60
    80
    100
    % human consumption
  • 9. 3. Livestock: households with animals
    180
    120
    % hh
    Donkey
    Camel
    Goat
    60
    Sheep
    Buffalo
    Crossbred cattle
    Indigenous cattle
    0
    Amhara
    Dinajpur
    Haryana
    Mat
    Oromia
    Rajasthan
    Western
    North
    Kenya
  • 10. 3. Livestock: households with animals
    6.00
    5.00
    4.00
    Dinajpur (BD)
    Haryana (IN)
    Rajasthan (IN)
    3.00
    TLU/ha
    2.00
    Amhara (ET)
    Western Kenya
    Oromia (ET)
    1.00
    Mat North (ZW)
    .00
    0
    400
    800
    1,200
    1,600
    2,000
    TLU
  • 11. 3. Livestock: feed shortage
    (total months)
    Amhara
    9
    Western
    6
    Dinajpur
    Kenya
    3
    0
    Rajasthan
    Haryana
    Feed type
    Dry fodder
    Green fodder
    Mat
    Grazing
    Oromia
    North
  • 12. 3. Livestock: use of dung
    100%
    80%
    Aggregated %
    60%
    Not used
    Other
    40%
    Sold
    Manure
    Fuel
    20%
    0%
    Amhara
    Dinajpur
    Haryana
    Mat
    Oromia
    Rajasthan
    Western
    North
    Kenya
  • 13. 4. CR: relative uses
    100%
    Trends
    80%
    Aggregated
    60%
    40%
    Others
    Fuel
    Sold
    Stall feed
    20%
    Grazed by other animals
    Grazed own animals
    Mulch
    0%
    Dinajpur
    Amhara
    Oromia
    Haryana
    Rajasthan
    Western
    Mat
    Kenya
    North
  • 14. 4. CR: exploration & clustering
    Left soil
    80
    No Crops
    60
    Burnt
    Grazed
    40
    20
    Collected by others
    Dealt
    0
    Clusters
    Grazed
    Stall feeding
    Construction
    Mulch & co
    Stall feed
    Fuel
    Mixed
  • 15. 4. CR: exploration & clustering
    1
    0.8
    Proportion
    0.6
    0.4
    Others
    Wheat
    0.2
    Teff
    Sorghum
    Rice
    Maize
    0
    Grazed
    Mulch & co
    Stall feed
    Mixed
    Clusters
  • 16. 4. CR: exploration - maize
    No Crops
    Clusters
  • 17. 4. CR: exploration - wheat
    No Crops
    Clusters
  • 18. But also: income + wealth groups
    100%
    80%
    Aggregated %
    60%
    40%
    Source
    Remittances
    Business
    Reg employment
    20%
    Non agri labour
    Agri labour
    Other farm
    Livestock
    Crops
    0%
    W
    M
    P
    W
    M
    P
    W
    M
    P
    W
    M
    P
    W
    M
    P
    W
    M
    P
    W
    M
    P
    Dinahpur
    Amhara
    Oromia
    Haryana
    Rajasthan
    Western
    Mat North
    Kenya
  • 19. Cool… So?
    • Although compared sites can very diverse, similarities exits.
    • 20. Diversity is across regions, countries, sites and villages.
    • 21. This diversity influences CR management in mixed systems.
    • 22. Differences in CR management includes both time and space.
    • 23. Yet, there is an overall increase of the use of CR as feed.
    • 24. When CR is left in the soil, there is either an excess of biomass or lack of labour, combine with low palatability.