Optimizing benefits from crop residues in smallholder mixed systems in Africa and South Asia: A comparison
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Optimizing benefits from crop residues in smallholder mixed systems in Africa and South Asia: A comparison

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Presentation by Diego Valbuena for the SLP Crop Residues Project Review and Planning Meeting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 9-10 December 2010

Presentation by Diego Valbuena for the SLP Crop Residues Project Review and Planning Meeting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 9-10 December 2010

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    Optimizing benefits from crop residues in smallholder mixed systems in Africa and South Asia: A comparison Optimizing benefits from crop residues in smallholder mixed systems in Africa and South Asia: A comparison Presentation Transcript

    • Optimizing benefits from Crop Residues in Smallholder mixed systems in Africa and South Asia: A comparison
      Presentation by Diego Valbuena (ILRI) for the
      SLP Crop Residues Project Review and Planning Meeting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 9-10 Dec 2010
    • A comparison…
      Dinajpur (BD)
      Amhara (ET)
      Generalities
      Cropping
      Livestock
      Crop residues
      Oromia (ET)
      Haryana (IN)
      Mat North (ZW)
      Western
      Kenya
      Rajasthan (IN)
    • 1. Generalities: density vs. village area
      8000
      7000
      6000
      Village area (ha)
      5000
      Mat North (ZW)
      4000
      3000
      2000
      1000
      Haryana (IN)
      Western
      Kenya
      Rajasthan (IN)
      Amhara (ET)
      0
      Oromia (ET)
      Dinajpur (BD)
      0
      5
      10
      15
      20
      Density (persons/ha)
    • 1. Generalities: services & assets
      With mobile phone
      80
      Access formal electricity
      Aggregated %
      60
      Access water (pipe)
      40
      With livestock
      20
      With land
      0
      Amhara
      Dinajpur
      Haryana
      Mat
      Oromia
      Rajasthan
      Western
      North
      Kenya
    • 1. Generalities: food, poverty & literacy
      100
      Milk consumption
      80
      More 1 meal/day
      Aggregated %
      60
      Not receiving aid
      40
      Above poverty line
      20
      Literacy
      0
      Amhara
      Dinajpur
      Haryana
      Mat North
      Oromia
      Rajasthan
      Western
      Kenya
    • 2. Cropping: fertiliser vs. manure application
      Dinajpur (BD)
      Rajasthan (IN)
      100
      Oromia (ET)
      Haryana (IN)
      80
      Mat North (ZW)
      60
      Western
      Kenya
      % hh using manure
      40
      Amhara (ET)
      20
      0
      0
      20
      40
      60
      80
      100
      % hh using fertiliser
    • 2. Cropping: intensification
      100
      Thresher/Combine/Cutter use
      80
      Pesticide
      Aggregated %
      60
      Herbicide application
      40
      Chemical fertiliser use
      20
      Tractor use
      0
      Dinajpur
      Amhara
      Oromia
      Haryana
      Rajastan
      Western
      Mat North
      Kenya
    • 2. Cropping: uses of crop 1
      100
      80
      Amhara (ET): teff
      60
      % later sale
      Dinajpur (BD): rice
      40
      Oromia (ET): most teff
      20
      Western
      Kenya: maize
      Mat North (ZW): maize
      Haryana (IN): rice
      0
      Rajasthan (IN): maize
      0
      20
      40
      60
      80
      100
      % human consumption
    • 3. Livestock: households with animals
      180
      120
      % hh
      Donkey
      Camel
      Goat
      60
      Sheep
      Buffalo
      Crossbred cattle
      Indigenous cattle
      0
      Amhara
      Dinajpur
      Haryana
      Mat
      Oromia
      Rajasthan
      Western
      North
      Kenya
    • 3. Livestock: households with animals
      6.00
      5.00
      4.00
      Dinajpur (BD)
      Haryana (IN)
      Rajasthan (IN)
      3.00
      TLU/ha
      2.00
      Amhara (ET)
      Western Kenya
      Oromia (ET)
      1.00
      Mat North (ZW)
      .00
      0
      400
      800
      1,200
      1,600
      2,000
      TLU
    • 3. Livestock: feed shortage
      (total months)
      Amhara
      9
      Western
      6
      Dinajpur
      Kenya
      3
      0
      Rajasthan
      Haryana
      Feed type
      Dry fodder
      Green fodder
      Mat
      Grazing
      Oromia
      North
    • 3. Livestock: use of dung
      100%
      80%
      Aggregated %
      60%
      Not used
      Other
      40%
      Sold
      Manure
      Fuel
      20%
      0%
      Amhara
      Dinajpur
      Haryana
      Mat
      Oromia
      Rajasthan
      Western
      North
      Kenya
    • 4. CR: relative uses
      100%
      Trends
      80%
      Aggregated
      60%
      40%
      Others
      Fuel
      Sold
      Stall feed
      20%
      Grazed by other animals
      Grazed own animals
      Mulch
      0%
      Dinajpur
      Amhara
      Oromia
      Haryana
      Rajasthan
      Western
      Mat
      Kenya
      North
    • 4. CR: exploration & clustering
      Left soil
      80
      No Crops
      60
      Burnt
      Grazed
      40
      20
      Collected by others
      Dealt
      0
      Clusters
      Grazed
      Stall feeding
      Construction
      Mulch & co
      Stall feed
      Fuel
      Mixed
    • 4. CR: exploration & clustering
      1
      0.8
      Proportion
      0.6
      0.4
      Others
      Wheat
      0.2
      Teff
      Sorghum
      Rice
      Maize
      0
      Grazed
      Mulch & co
      Stall feed
      Mixed
      Clusters
    • 4. CR: exploration - maize
      No Crops
      Clusters
    • 4. CR: exploration - wheat
      No Crops
      Clusters
    • But also: income + wealth groups
      100%
      80%
      Aggregated %
      60%
      40%
      Source
      Remittances
      Business
      Reg employment
      20%
      Non agri labour
      Agri labour
      Other farm
      Livestock
      Crops
      0%
      W
      M
      P
      W
      M
      P
      W
      M
      P
      W
      M
      P
      W
      M
      P
      W
      M
      P
      W
      M
      P
      Dinahpur
      Amhara
      Oromia
      Haryana
      Rajasthan
      Western
      Mat North
      Kenya
    • Cool… So?
      • Although compared sites can very diverse, similarities exits.
      • Diversity is across regions, countries, sites and villages.
      • This diversity influences CR management in mixed systems.
      • Differences in CR management includes both time and space.
      • Yet, there is an overall increase of the use of CR as feed.
      • When CR is left in the soil, there is either an excess of biomass or lack of labour, combine with low palatability.