Napier grass smut and stunt resistance: Introducing the Project

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A presentation prepared by Janice Proud for the ASARECA/ILRI workshop on Mitigating the Impact of Napier Grass Smut and Stunt Diseases, Addis Ababa, June 2-3, 2010

A presentation prepared by Janice Proud for the ASARECA/ILRI workshop on Mitigating the Impact of Napier Grass Smut and Stunt Diseases, Addis Ababa, June 2-3, 2010

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  • 1. Napier grass smut and stunt resistance ASARECA Project 06/RC01-FC-2-02 (LFP PRJ 12) Presented at the ASARECA/ILRI Workshop on Mitigating the Impact of Napier Grass Smut and Stunt Diseases, Addis Ababa, June 2-3, 2010
  • 2. Napier grass is grown extensively in Kenya and Uganda by smallholder farmers as feed for stall fed dairy cows
  • 3. Napier grass smut and stunt both severely reduce plant biomass production. This is limiting feed availability for smallholder farmers Napier grass smut Napier grass stunt
  • 4. Effect of Napier grass stunt on fodder yield, Uganda 2007 2009
  • 5. Project leaders from Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya Some of wider project team
  • 6. ILR I INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE INSTITUTE Napier Grass N apier grass is a major cut and carry feed for cross bred dairy cattle. Smut and stunt diseases are causing yield reductions. W orking together can reduce the impact of stunt and smut on smallholder dairy farms in East Africa . This project is: R esponding to the disease threats to a smallholder dairy industry dependent on Napier grass R aising awareness of Napier grass smut and stunt in the region R esponding to demand for information on managing Napier grass smut and stunt R esponding to demand for productive and resistant clones of Napier grass from NARS and farmers in the region Best management practices I nspect your crop regularly and remove diseased plants K eep Napier healthy by weeding and manuring plots U se planting material from disease free areas A partnership approach to mitigate the effects of Napier diseases on smallholder dairy Partners: International Livestock Research Institute , Kenyan Agricultural Research Institute, National Biological Control Program (Tanzania), National Livestock Resource Research Institute (Uganda), Rothamsted Research (UK), International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology Contact: Dr Jean Hanson, j.hanson@cgiar.org Dr Janice Proud, j.proud@cgiar.org Stall fed cows face feed shortages Screening for disease incidence Stunt affected plant Different strains of stunt Website screenshot (https:/sites.google.com/site/napiergrassdiseaseresistance) Raising awareness National team leaders Information gathering and dissemination Weighing biomass Healthy Napier grass
  • 7. ILRI’s role in the project
    • In proposal
    • Nutritional analysis for project (student from region)
    • Molecular characterisation for project (student from region)
    • Validate and test smut diagnostics
    • Arrange and host training in molecular diagnostics
    • Screen ILRI collection for smut & stunt
    • Arrange annual regional meeting
    • Train and support partners in M&E, using Outcome Mapping
    • Project coordination
    • Subsequently added
    • Further development work on smut diagnostics
    • Training national partners in molecular diagnostics
    • Transfer of ILRI collection to Kenya for disease screening
    • Website development and maintenance
    • Regional final workshop to disseminate project results
  • 8. Surveys and collections Surveys carried out in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, in selected districts representing 3 agro-ecological zones Clones that farmers thought disease tolerant collected and planted in each country Technical progress
    • Data from surveys collated in each country to identify:
    • how Napier grass is selected and grown
    • how it is managed managed for yield
    • how it is managed to mitigate the impact of disease
    • the extent and severity of disease in the selected areas
    52 296 Uganda 212 250 Tanzania 597 515 Kenya Clones collected Households surveyed
  • 9. Morphological characterisation and biomass trials Napier grass from national collections selected for replicate trials on basis of disease resistance, high yield and variation in morphology Napier grass characterised for morphological traits using standard protocol. Traits can be used to select clones desirable to farmers, less hairy and serrated High yielding clones identified in each national trial Technical progress 56 52 Uganda 30 212 Tanzania 120 597 Kenya Clones in trial Clones collected
  • 10. Nutritional quality and molecular diversity
    • Nutritional quality
    • All replicates of clones in national trials analysed at two harvest using NIRS, at ILRI, Addis Ababa
    • Equation for Napier grass expanded and used to predict nutritive quality
    • High and low quality clones identified for each country
    • Molecular diversity
    • All clones from national trials and ILRI collection (60) analysed using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, at BecA/ILRI, Nairobi
    • 64 primer pairs tested, 10 pairs selected for analysis of the 281 samples
    Near Infra Red Spectral analysis Technical progress M57 M58 M59 M60 M61 M62 M63 M64
  • 11. Disease incidence and severity Replicated trials planted with spreader rows of infected plants for field challenge for stunt Disease scored after each harvest Uganda all clones susceptible to stunt Clones showing tolerance planted for further challenge with vector To date, still 14 clones disease free in Tanzania and 40 in Kenya, of which 28 high yielding Technical progress 0 0 0 56 Uganda No data yet 14 15 30 Tanzania 28 40 83 120 Kenya Disease free high yielding clones Disease free clones Clones vector challenge Clones in trial
  • 12. Molecular diagnostics
    • Napier grass smut
    • Causal agent of Napier grass smut, Ustilago kamerunensis , cultured, used to infect healthy plants
    • Sequenced for first time
    • Primers and probe designed and being optimised for PCR and Nucleic Acid Hybridisation
    • Napier grass stunt
    • Better primers and probe designed for detection of phytoplasma strains causing Napier grass stunt in Ethiopia and Kenya
    • Capacity building
    • Training manual prepared
    • Training planned to share techniques with regional partners for use in their institutes or BecA nodes in their countries
    • Phylogenetic tree based on ITS
    • Ethiopian sample (UE) identical to U. cynodontis
    • Kenyan samples separate and close to U. trichophora
    • No U. kamerunensis sequences in Genbank
    Technical progress
  • 13. Collecting and sharing information
    • Focus during surveys:
    • collecting information on:
      • disease extent and severity
      • best practices to manage the diseases
    • raising awareness of smut and stunt, especially in Tanzania where they had not been recorded previously
    Knowledge sharing
  • 14. Knowledge sharing
    • Then:
    • raising awareness of smut and stunt
    • sharing best management practices
    • getting feedback
    • Using a variety of means:
    • leaflets
    • posters
    • drama
    • In different settings:
    • on farm
    • at markets
    • at roadside
    • at stakeholder meetings
    • at agricultural shows
    • at field days
    • song
    • radio
    • participatory assessment
    • TV
    • website
  • 15. Knowledge sharing
  • 16. Knowledge sharing
  • 17. Influencing policy
    • Activities
    • Participation at agricultural shows
    • Invitations of policy makers to stakeholder meetings
    • Raising awareness of diseases in media (newspaper, radio, TV)
    • Policy briefs
    • Outcomes
    • Research, extension work and disease reporting supported
    • Proposals funded
      • for extension work to share knowledge
      • to increase understanding of the disease
  • 18. Capacity building
    • Integral to project, both locally and regionally
    • Nutritional quality at ILRI Addis, Clementine Namazzi (Uganda)
    • Molecular characterisation at ILRI Nairobi, Bramwel Wanjala (Kenya)
    • Biomass yield, morphological characterisation and disease incidence and severity in each country, national in each country
    • Capacity of project leaders enhanced through the rigorous cycle of:
    • workplan and budget preparation
    • recording and reporting on finances
    • reporting on technical progress
    • presentations on project activities to different groups
    • Outcome mapping of project progress
  • 19. Regional relevance and linkages
    • ICIPE working on east Africa promoting Push Pull technology for Striga and maize stem borer control have real concern about Napier diseases, working to identify vector of Napier grass stunt, will promote disease resistant clones
    • East Africa Dairy Development project, a link for dissemination of best management practices and disease resistant planting material
    • FOA promoting Napier grass in Burundi, have disease problem and want to learn more from this project.
    • Many local partnerships at all levels, from research to sharing knowledge
    Napier grass stunt is a severe threat to smallholder dairy sector in western Kenya and Uganda, an emerging disease in Tanzania and suspected in Burundi. Napier grass smut is a threat in central Kenya, where stunt is now an emerging disease.
  • 20. Technical reporting
    • Reporting, following ASARECA structures
    • Six monthly reporting by partners
    • Collated by ILRI to single report for ASARECA, with follow up by email for clarification, extra information
    • Analysis of pooled national data for regional overview
    • Similar procedures for annual report
    • Progress indicators calculated as progress made in different activities needed to complete the indicator
    • Outcome mapping reporting
    • Training at inception reporting
    • Support at meetings to develop indicators
    • Follow up training at regional meeting end year 2
    • Initial outcome mapping report develop by partners
    • Further support to complete reports including participation at final national stakeholder meetings
  • 21. Financial procedures and reporting
    • Using ASARECA formats
    • Partners prepare budget for workplan activities for each year
    • Submitted to ASARECA as annual financing plan for project
    • Fund request submitted to ILRI with budget for year
    • First advance 80% of year 1 budget
    • Submission of financial report and supporting documents to ILRI 6 monthly
    • Expenditure checked against workplan activities and budget
    • Expenditure recorded by ILRI finance
    • Expenditure reported to ASARECA 6 monthly
    • Subsequent advances made against cleared expenditure of at least 75% of advanced funds
  • 22. Gender
    • This project is important for women in East Africa, since women provide most of the labour on smallholder dairy farms.
    • The project outputs of management practices to mitigate the impact of Napier grass diseases and disease resistant planting material will have a significant impact on women by improving Napier grass production.
    • Increased Napier grass production will increase milk yield, benefiting women and their children through enhanced nutrition and income from milk.
    • The project has also developed the capacity of women scientist in the region, both in the project team in each country and other staff.
    • Several of the project team have benefitted from participation in the African Women in Agricultural Research and Development (AWARD) program of the CGIAR
  • 23. Thank you to ASARECA and ADB for funding this work 1 Demand driven technologies/innovations generated and promoted 3 Regional and national capacity for implementing agricultural research in the IAR4D paradigm strengthened 4 Availability of information on agricultural research and development enhanced which is working to ensure that farmers have productive disease free Napier grass for their cows to help feed and support their families, while meeting ASARECA objectives: Napier grass stunt in Uganda