Opportunities and constraints to women's access to, and control
over, resources in the small ruminant value chain in Ethio...
Presentation outline
 Introduction
 Conceptual framework
 Methodology
 Findings and discussion
 Conclusion
 Recommen...
Introduction
 Importance of small ruminant (goat and sheep)
production in Ethiopia
 Women’s access to and control of res...
Objectives of the study
1. Document women’s participation in the small
ruminant value chain
2. To identify existing gender...
Conceptual framework
Community capitals framework: stock of
assets, interaction and flow of
community capitals
Human
capit...
Methodology
 Study was conducted in six woredas (districts)
 Borana (pastoralist community)
 Doyogena, menz, Horo, Amha...
Women’s participation in the small
ruminant value chain
• Women mostly involved in work related to
production around the h...
Productive resources
 Opportunities:
 Joint ownership of productive resources
 In Amhara, women could own 50% of animal...
Productive resources…
“To sell animals, we discuss together with my
husband about what animal to sell but its my
husband's...
Breeding stock
 Constraints
 Both men and women had limited access to breeding
stock
 Selection of ram/ewe made by men
...
Breeding stock…
“The outcome of certification was very interesting… it
increased women’s awareness of their rights. In one...
Labor saving technologies
 Constraints
 Both men and women lacked labor
saving technologies
 Lack of knowledge about im...
Credit services
 Constraints
 Women’s low membership to groups
 Women’s low political capital
 Low social capital amon...
Extension and veterinary services
 Constraints
 Men more advantaged to
access extension services
 Distance to location ...
Markets and market information
 Constraints
 Women’s mobility to markets restricted by
cultural norms in Abergelle Amhar...
Access and consumption of animal source
foods
• In Abergelle, women and girls were forbidden
to consume whole milk
• Socia...
Conclusion
• Women’s access to and control over resources is
associated with access to community capitals and
the relation...
CGIAR is a global partnership that unites organizations engaged in research for a food secure future. The CGIAR
Research P...
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Opportunities and constraints to women's access to, and control over, resources in the small ruminant value chain in Ethiopia

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Presented by Annet A. Mulema at the 23rd International Association for Feminist Economics (IAFFE) Annual Conference, Accra, Ghana, 27-29 June 2014


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  • The community capitals framework situates economic development efforts in a systems perspective
    We the CCF to give a holistic perspective of the capitals that women need to mobilize in oreder to maximize their participation in small ruminant value chains
  • Woredas selected are sites the CGs’ re
    The community capitals framework is used to provide a holistic perspective of the various capitals required by women and men

    Women were more constrained to access inputs and services (labor saving technologies, improved breeding stock, credit services, veterinary and extension services and markets)
  • Limitation to women’s engagement in lucrative employment
  • Women’s economic decisions still made in consultation with husband
    Cultural capital and human capital
    Low human capital limits their capacity to exploit opportunities presented by cultural capital
  • Opportunities and constraints to women's access to, and control over, resources in the small ruminant value chain in Ethiopia

    1. 1. Opportunities and constraints to women's access to, and control over, resources in the small ruminant value chain in Ethiopia Annet A. Mulema 23rd International Association for Feminist Economics (IAFFE) Annual Conference, Accra, Ghana, 27-29 June 2014
    2. 2. Presentation outline  Introduction  Conceptual framework  Methodology  Findings and discussion  Conclusion  Recommendations
    3. 3. Introduction  Importance of small ruminant (goat and sheep) production in Ethiopia  Women’s access to and control of resources is limited  Knowledge gap  gendered constraints and opportunities to women’s access to, and control over, resources  understanding of the various capitals that women mobilize to improve their livelihoods
    4. 4. Objectives of the study 1. Document women’s participation in the small ruminant value chain 2. To identify existing gender constraints and opportunities which can be built on to improve women's ability to engage successfully in the target value chain 3. Determine intra-household distribution and consumption of animal source food and any factors which hinder women’s consumption of milk and meat
    5. 5. Conceptual framework Community capitals framework: stock of assets, interaction and flow of community capitals Human capital Natural capital Cultural capital Built capital Financial capital Political capital social capital Access to and control over resources Capabilities
    6. 6. Methodology  Study was conducted in six woredas (districts)  Borana (pastoralist community)  Doyogena, menz, Horo, Amhara Abergelle and Amhara-Tirgay (agro-pastoralist communities)  Selected two kabeles (village) per woreda  Key informant interviews with different actors  Separate and mixed focus group discussions with female and male farmers in each site  Data analysis
    7. 7. Women’s participation in the small ruminant value chain • Women mostly involved in work related to production around the home • Milk processing and marketing was sole responsibility of women • Local collectors and small traders were mostly men except in Doyogena • Abergelle export abattoir employed both men and women but preferred hiring men for tasks that require knowledge of quality assurance
    8. 8. Productive resources  Opportunities:  Joint ownership of productive resources  In Amhara, women could own 50% of animals she brought into marriage  Women had access to and controlled small ruminant products and the revenue  Constraints  Decision making dominated by men  Men considered more knowledgeable  Cultural capital presents opportunities but may also constrain women’s access to and control over resources
    9. 9. Productive resources… “To sell animals, we discuss together with my husband about what animal to sell but its my husband's decision which is mainly considered. If he suggests that we sell a goat and I say we sell the sheep, normally I go by his decision” (female farmer, Borana, Feb 27, 2014). “I make decisions over livestock. I am the boss. I have more knowledge about livestock. However, my wife is equally knowledgeable. If I left, my wife can handle everything. Although I am the boss, I involve my wife in decisions” (male farmer, Borana, Feb 27, 2014).
    10. 10. Breeding stock  Constraints  Both men and women had limited access to breeding stock  Selection of ram/ewe made by men  Opportunities  Community support programs thru’: • Government • Local NGOs • International research institutions e.g. the community-based sheep breeding program
    11. 11. Breeding stock… “The outcome of certification was very interesting… it increased women’s awareness of their rights. In one of the training days, after certification, the extension agent was planning to conduct a session, and as usual he invited only men excluding the women; This time the women did not accept him; so they claimed that as long as they are entitled with the small ruminant certification, they deserve the training as well. As a result the extension agent was convinced and the women were able to attend the training” (Male researcher, Horro, 28 Dec. 2013).  Linking social capital enhances access to natural, human, financial and political capitals
    12. 12. Labor saving technologies  Constraints  Both men and women lacked labor saving technologies  Lack of knowledge about improved processing methods  Lack of human capital and financial capital constrained access to built capital  Opportunity  Improvement of enterprises that women dominant
    13. 13. Credit services  Constraints  Women’s low membership to groups  Women’s low political capital  Low social capital amongst women which hinders enhancement of human, political and financial capitals  Opportunities  NGO programs  Government support services e.g. Household Asset Building program  Linking and bridging social capital
    14. 14. Extension and veterinary services  Constraints  Men more advantaged to access extension services  Distance to location of health services  Poor linkages between women and service providers  Gender biased norms and beliefs Opportunity • Sensitization of women about their rights to services
    15. 15. Markets and market information  Constraints  Women’s mobility to markets restricted by cultural norms in Abergelle Amhara and Tigray  Women not involved in buying or selling sheep  Men considered better negotiators  Women lack of mobile phones, access to radio and access to social spaces  Opportunities  In Menz and Yabello, women were considered good negotiators  Bonding and bridging social capital enhances human capital
    16. 16. Access and consumption of animal source foods • In Abergelle, women and girls were forbidden to consume whole milk • Social status and culture influenced access to and consumption of meat • The best cut was given to the husbands • Women’s who freely participated in markets consumed meat more often like the men • Poor women were unlikely to consume meat especially in female headed households
    17. 17. Conclusion • Women’s access to and control over resources is associated with access to community capitals and the relationship between and flow of the capitals • Growth in the stock and flow of capitals would increase the capacity of women to engage and benefit from SRVC • The interaction between the capitals spurs the momentum to generate more opportunities for women to access resources • There is need to enhance capitals and transform gender constraining norms, beliefs, attitudes and practices
    18. 18. CGIAR is a global partnership that unites organizations engaged in research for a food secure future. The CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish aims to increase the productivity of small-scale livestock and fish systems in sustainable ways, making meat, milk and fish more available and affordable across the developing world. CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish livestockfish.cgiar.org
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