More pork and less parasites: a farm to fork
approach for assessment and management of
pork meat associated diseases in Ug...
Outline:
• Context of PhD thesis
• PhD thesis:
objectives
activities
preliminary results
outlook
• Acknowledgements
Context
Joint appointment
coordinator ILRI-led project
“Safe Food, Fair Food”

PhD student
FUB (DRS)

• 2012-2015
• BMZ/GI...
Context
CGIAR global partnership for
a food secure future
• Poverty alleviation through
agricultural research
• 15 researc...
Research program on livestock & fish:
more meat, milk and fish for and by the poor
R4D integrated to transform selected va...
8 Target Value Chains
SHEEP & GOATS

AQUACULTURE

PIGS
DAIRY
Research program on nutrition & health
• Program led by IFPRI
• 4 components; ILRI is
leading “prevention and
control of a...
Safe Food, Fair Food
risk-based approaches to improving food safety and
market access in informal markets in sub Saharan
A...
Food safety in sub-Saharan Africa
 World wide per year >2 billion
cases of diarrhea
and 1.5 million deaths of children
un...
informal markets:
“absence of structured safety inspection”

10
Problems at policy level

 Current food safety management seems to be neither
effective nor efficient
 Tendency to adopt...
Kampala news June 2012

• Trivializing
• Scaring
• Defaming
But how to deal with informal markets?
 Ban or promote?
 Zero-risk/ hazard-based policy?
„if in doubt, keep it out“
 Is...
Risk analysis
or Risk-Based Decision Making
in informal marketing systems
 Based on evidence not perceptions
 Clear dist...
Codex Alimentarius Commission framework
for food safety risk assessment
Safe Food, Fair Food: 3 main components
 Assessment of food safety in selected value
chains: priority setting
 Action re...
Partners
Centre Suisse des
Recherches
Scientifiques en Côte
d’Ivoire
Senegal

Addis Ababa University
Ethiopia
Nairobi Univ...
PhD thesis

Assessment of the parasitic burden
in the smallholder pig value chain
and implications for public health in
Ug...
Context:
Pigs and pork in Uganda
• Highest per capita consumption
in SSA (3.4 kg)
• Explosion in pig numbers over
the past...
Integration:
pig value chain assessment

Enabling environment

Live pig traders

Systematic literature review
Situational ...
Hypothesis
In Uganda, the intensification level affects the parasitic
burden of pigs and hence the output and profitabilit...
Goal
Contribute to improving selected smallholder
pig value chains in Uganda by increasing the
knowledge on prevalent para...
Objective 1:
To understand whether parasites are perceived as a production
constraint by farmers
Approach: Participatory a...
Objective 2:

To estimate the parasitic burden in pigs and pork at farm,
slaughter and retail outlet level in 3 value chai...
May-July 2013:
2-stage random sampling
at farm level

stool and serum collected
from approximately 1,200
pigs in 30 villag...
“real time diagnostics” in
the field lab:
combined sedimentation
and flotation
(gastrointestinal helminths)
thin blood sme...
Convenient sample ectoparasites

Haematopinus suis

Amblyomma variegatum
• September-October 2013: Serological analyses at FLI
–
–
–
–

FLI Inhouse ELISA Toxoplasma gondii (toxo p30) – 2 versions...
Objectives 3+4:

To identify risk factors contributing to parasitic infections in pigs
and pork and 4. To identify current...
• Oral presentation
slaughterhouse study at
AITVM 2013 in
Johannesburg, RSA
(August 2013)
• Poster presentation at
Ecoheal...
5. To assess the risk to public health through the
consumption of pork infested with parasites (on-going)
6. To develop an...
Acknowledgements:
•
•
•

•

•
•

•
•

Peter-Henning Clausen, Reinhard Fries, Max Baumann, Karsten
Noeckler, Delia Grace
Da...
THANK YOU!
Kristina Roesel
Project coordinator “Safe Food, Fair Food”
ILRI-Kampala
k.roesel@cgiar.org
https://safefoodfair...
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More pork and less parasites: A farm to fork approach for assessment and management of pork meat associated diseases in Uganda

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Presentation by Kristina Roesel, Peter-Henning Clausen, Reinhard Fries, Maximilian Baumann, Karsten Noeckler and Delia Grace at a parasitological colloquium held at Free University Berlin, Germany, 18 October 2013.

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More pork and less parasites: A farm to fork approach for assessment and management of pork meat associated diseases in Uganda

  1. 1. More pork and less parasites: a farm to fork approach for assessment and management of pork meat associated diseases in Uganda Kristina Roesel, Peter-Henning Clausen, Reinhard Fries, Maximilian Baumann, Karsten Noeckler and Delia Grace Parasitologisches Kolloquium, Freie Universität Berlin 18th October 2013 in Berlin, Germany
  2. 2. Outline: • Context of PhD thesis • PhD thesis: objectives activities preliminary results outlook • Acknowledgements
  3. 3. Context Joint appointment coordinator ILRI-led project “Safe Food, Fair Food” PhD student FUB (DRS) • 2012-2015 • BMZ/GIZ funded 1.2m € • 4.5 countries • 9 partner institutions • Approx. 20 partners • 11 postgraduate students • 2012-2015 • Peter-Henning Clausen (FUB) • Reinhard Fries (FUB) • Delia Grace (ILRI) • Karsten Noeckler (BfR) • Max Baumann (FUB)
  4. 4. Context CGIAR global partnership for a food secure future • Poverty alleviation through agricultural research • 15 research centers • Since 2012 16 multi-center research programs: Solutiondriven R4D to achieve impact • ILRI is leading 2 major programs
  5. 5. Research program on livestock & fish: more meat, milk and fish for and by the poor R4D integrated to transform selected value chains In targeted commodities and countries. Inputs & Services Production Processing Marketing Consumers Value chain development team + research partners To sustainably increase the productivity of small-scale livestock and fish systems to increase the availability and affordability of animal-source foods for poor consumers.
  6. 6. 8 Target Value Chains SHEEP & GOATS AQUACULTURE PIGS DAIRY
  7. 7. Research program on nutrition & health • Program led by IFPRI • 4 components; ILRI is leading “prevention and control of agricultureassociated diseases” – – – – Food borne diseases Emerging infectious diseases Neglected zoonoses Ecohealth/ OneHealth http://aghealth.wordpress.com/
  8. 8. Safe Food, Fair Food risk-based approaches to improving food safety and market access in informal markets in sub Saharan Africa Funded by BMZ/GIZ (German Federal Minstry for Economic Cooperation and Development/ International Agency for International Cooperation)
  9. 9. Food safety in sub-Saharan Africa  World wide per year >2 billion cases of diarrhea and 1.5 million deaths of children under 5  80% of child deaths due to diarrhea in South Asia and Africa 1,800,000 1,600,000 1,200,000 1,000,000 800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 HI V (a ll) Tu be rc ul os is Ca nc er ea sle s M M al ar ia 0 FB D  In sub-Saharan Africa >80% of animal source foods sold through informal markets Cases per year  Animal source foods are single most important source of food borne disease (FBD) 1,400,000
  10. 10. informal markets: “absence of structured safety inspection” 10
  11. 11. Problems at policy level  Current food safety management seems to be neither effective nor efficient  Tendency to adopt international food quality standards and hazard-based regulations without considering local contexts  Food safety communication trivializing 11
  12. 12. Kampala news June 2012 • Trivializing • Scaring • Defaming
  13. 13. But how to deal with informal markets?  Ban or promote?  Zero-risk/ hazard-based policy? „if in doubt, keep it out“  Is there an acceptable level of risk?  How can participation help improving food safety? 13
  14. 14. Risk analysis or Risk-Based Decision Making in informal marketing systems  Based on evidence not perceptions  Clear distinction between risk and hazard!  Hazard = anything that causes harm  Risk = probability + consequences  Risk analysis = structured approach for evaluating and dealing with risks
  15. 15. Codex Alimentarius Commission framework for food safety risk assessment
  16. 16. Safe Food, Fair Food: 3 main components  Assessment of food safety in selected value chains: priority setting  Action research on priority food safety issues in these chains: pilot best-bet interventions  Enabling environments: engagement with Regional Economic Communities (REC) and Capacity building
  17. 17. Partners Centre Suisse des Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d’Ivoire Senegal Addis Ababa University Ethiopia Nairobi University Kenya Sokoine University of Agriculture Tanzania Makerere University Uganda International partners: Freie Universität Berlin & BfR
  18. 18. PhD thesis Assessment of the parasitic burden in the smallholder pig value chain and implications for public health in Uganda
  19. 19. Context: Pigs and pork in Uganda • Highest per capita consumption in SSA (3.4 kg) • Explosion in pig numbers over the past 30 years (0.19 to 2.3/3.2 million pigs) • Mostly in hands of small holders • “piggy bank” • 70% consumed in urban areas • “pork joint” phenomenon
  20. 20. Integration: pig value chain assessment Enabling environment Live pig traders Systematic literature review Situational analyses • Qualitative assessment 1,400 pig farmers • Pig farm • • Input suppliers Questionnaire surveys with value chain actors • Farm prevalence survey 1,200 pigs ASF, Taenia solium, Brucella suis, Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp., Sarcoptes spp., GIT helminths, Trypanosoma spp., Ebola virus Slaughter • Mapping of pork outlets in Kampala Transport • Qualitative assessment with 100 pork consumers and 200 mothers of children <5yrs Retail • Descriptive survey abattoir and biological sampling Consumer Salmonella spp., Brucella suis
  21. 21. Hypothesis In Uganda, the intensification level affects the parasitic burden of pigs and hence the output and profitability of pig farming as well as risk to human health associated with pork borne parasites.
  22. 22. Goal Contribute to improving selected smallholder pig value chains in Uganda by increasing the knowledge on prevalent parasitic diseases with particular emphasis on the zoonotic ones.
  23. 23. Objective 1: To understand whether parasites are perceived as a production constraint by farmers Approach: Participatory appraisal on animal health constraints for pig farmers • November 2012-February 2013: 24 participatory appraisals conducted with pig farmers (73 men + 135 women) • perceived as top 3 diseases in all villages by farmers: 1. swine fever 2. worms 3. mange
  24. 24. Objective 2: To estimate the parasitic burden in pigs and pork at farm, slaughter and retail outlet level in 3 value chain types in Uganda Approach: • estimate the parasitic burden in pigs at farm level using conventional parasitological and serological techniques (May-October 2013) • estimate parasitic infections in pigs and pork at slaughter and retail outlet level using forward tracing and meat inspection (December 2013)
  25. 25. May-July 2013: 2-stage random sampling at farm level stool and serum collected from approximately 1,200 pigs in 30 villages
  26. 26. “real time diagnostics” in the field lab: combined sedimentation and flotation (gastrointestinal helminths) thin blood smears from jugular EDTA blood (haemoparasites)
  27. 27. Convenient sample ectoparasites Haematopinus suis Amblyomma variegatum
  28. 28. • September-October 2013: Serological analyses at FLI – – – – FLI Inhouse ELISA Toxoplasma gondii (toxo p30) – 2 versions Commercial ELISA Priocheck Toxo Ab porcine Commercial ELISA Priocheck Trichinella Ab FUB Inhouse ELISA Sarcoptes suis
  29. 29. Objectives 3+4: To identify risk factors contributing to parasitic infections in pigs and pork and 4. To identify current practices that increase or reduce risks to public health associated with pork consumption Approach: • participatory appraisal on husbandry and management practices at farm level; slaughter level; pork preparation and consumption patterns at ready-to-eat market outlets – 24 participatory appraisals conducted with pig farmers (including slaughter practices) – Descriptive study at Wambizzi slaughter house in Kampala – 10 participatory appraisals conducted with pork consumers (pig farmers) • Literature review
  30. 30. • Oral presentation slaughterhouse study at AITVM 2013 in Johannesburg, RSA (August 2013) • Poster presentation at Ecohealth conference in Abidjan, CI (October 2013) Award for best poster!
  31. 31. 5. To assess the risk to public health through the consumption of pork infested with parasites (on-going) 6. To develop and test one intervention to reduce the parasitic burden in pigs (February – August 2014)
  32. 32. Acknowledgements: • • • • • • • • Peter-Henning Clausen, Reinhard Fries, Max Baumann, Karsten Noeckler, Delia Grace Danilo Pezo, Emily Ouma, Michel Dione, Natalie Carter, Paul Basaija, Rachel Miwanda, Tom Randolph Joseph Kungu, Joseph Erume, Angella Musewa, Joyce Akol, Katie Holmes, Dickson Ndoboli, Rodric Alinaitwe, Steven Kakooza, Maria Tumwebaze Peggy Hoffmann-Koehler, Katharina Seidl, Ard Nijhof, Antje Hoppenheit, Juergen Kruecken Gereon Schares, Andrea Baerwald Wambizzi Coorporative Society Ltd: Simon Lubega, Paul Sserubiri, Justine Nabukeera, Thomas Kasule, Fredrick Kibuuka, Richard Sekasanvu and Margaret, Jane Lwanira, David Walabyeki and the abattoir workers. the pig farmers in Uganda Hubertus Schnorr This work is financed by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany through the Safe Food, Fair Food project.
  33. 33. THANK YOU! Kristina Roesel Project coordinator “Safe Food, Fair Food” ILRI-Kampala k.roesel@cgiar.org https://safefoodfairfood.wordpress.com/ Better lives through livestock www.ilri.org The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given to ILRI.

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