1. Meat & VegLivestock and vegetable researchers are natural, high-value, partners in work for the well-being of the world’s poor Jimmy Smith ILRI Director General Presented at the World Vegetable Center, Taiwan, 18 November 2012
2. Meat & Veg: Natural, high-value, partnersOne of the things that distinguishesHomo sapiens is that we’re omnivores.Unusually, we’ve evolved toeat both meat and vegetables.Indeed, meat and two veg’is the traditional English meal.‘A kiss without a moustache’,say the Spanish,‘is like an egg without salt.’‘A kiss without a moustache’,we’re saying,‘is like meat without veg.’
3. Livestock in developing countries/Asia70% of the world’s livestock (18.5 billion head) are in developingcountries:• 15 billion poultry (70% in Asia)• 1.6 billion shoats (44% in Asia)• 1.2 billion bovines (49% in Asia)• 0.6 billion pigs (84% in Asia) FAO
4. Livestock keepers in developing countriesOne billion people earning <$2 a day depend on livestock:• 600 million in South Asia• 300 million in sub-Saharan Africa 0 or no data Density of poor livestock keepers Density of poor ILRI, 2012 livestock keepers
5. Livestock and livelihoods Livestock production and marketing are essential for the livelihoods of almost 1 billion. Two-thirds are women. 1.3 billion people employed in livestock value chains globally. 5
6. Livestock and livelihoods• 70% of the world’s rural poor rely on livestock for important parts of their livelihoods.• Of the 600 million poor livestock keepers in the world, around two-thirds are rural women.• Over 100 million landless people keep livestock.• Up to 40% of benefits from livestock keeping come from non-market, intangible benefits, mostly insurance and financing.• In the poorest countries, livestock manure comprises over 70% of soil fertility amendments.
7. Livestock for nutrition• In developing countries, livestock contribute 6−36% of protein and 2−12% of calories.• Livestock provide food for at least 830 million food-insecure people.• Small amounts of animal-source foods have large benefits on child growth and cognition and on pregnancy outcomes.• A small number of countries bear most of the burden of malnutrition (India, Ethiopia, Nigeria−36% burden).
8. ILRI Offices India Mali China Laos VietnamNairobi: HeadquartersAddis Ababa: principal campusIn 2012, offices opened in: NigeriaKampala, Uganda Sri LankaHarare, Zimbabwe MozambiqueGaborone, Botswana KenyaOffice in Bamako, Mali Thailandrelocated to EthiopiaOuagadougou, Burkina FasoDakar, Senegal
9. ILRI Resources• Staff: 700.• Budget $60 million.• 30+ scientific disciplines.• 100 scientists from 39 countries.• 56% of internationally recruited staff are from 22 developing countries.• 34% of internationally recruited staff are women.• Large campuses in Kenya and Ethiopia.• 70% of research in sub-Saharan Africa.
10. ILRI’s competencies – integrated sciences Now Future opportunities Gender and equity Policy, investment and trade Resilience Animal health delivery Value chains and innovation Payment for ecosystem services Zoonotics and food safety Conservation of indigenous animal genetic resources Feeds Livestock and environment
11. ILRI’s competencies – biosciences Now Future opportunities Vaccines Genomics and gene delivery Genomics Feed biosciences Breeding Poultry genetics BecA
12. Opportunities forresearch synergies
13. Livestock support vegetable farming,and vice versa• Farm animals remain essential to small, mixed crop-and- livestock farming systems across the developing world.• Livestock manure fertilizes crop soils on mixed farms, in developing countries supplying 23% of the nitrogen inputs required for vegetable and other crop production.• The residues of vegetables (e.g., soy beans, fodder beet, sweet potato) provide feed for farm animals.
14. Livestock and vegetables enhance nutrition• Livestock incomes enable poor households in poor countries to buy cheap grains and tubers for the bulk of their meals, as well as some highly nourishing vegetables.• Consumption of even very modest amounts of vegetables and milk, meat and eggs helps nourish people subsisting largely on cheap grains and tubers, particularly very young children and women of child-bearing years.• The point is to enable poor households to diversify the foods they consume and to incorporate modest amounts of more nourishing foods in cheap, starchy staple diets.
15. Livestock and vegetables suitan urbanizing, warming worldSmallholder livestock and vegetable productionoffers similar opportunities: Nutritious foods for the malnourished. Market opportunities to meet high urban demand. Income opportunities for women and youth. Expands household incomes. Generates jobs. Makes use of organic urban waste and wastewater. Can be considered ‘organic’ and supplied to niche markets.
16. Opportunities forrefined integration 16
17. Meat & Veg: Research partnershipsUniversity of Kassel, Germany: 2007-10Urban Food: Nutrient efficient agriculture in West African CitiesAssessed nutrient flows in 3 cities and ruminant livestock practicesfor safer urban livestock and vegetable products.CORAF & ILRI: 2009-13Integrated dairy horticulture systems in semi-arid West AfricaEstablishing integrated processes for identifying, testing, adapting,and scaling out dairy horticulture systems.IWMI & ILRI: 2005-8Wastewater for forage & veg production in Hyderabad, IndiaIdentified contamination pathways and intervention points inwastewater vegetable crop/fodder production.
18. ILRI & AVDRC in CGIAR Research Programs• (1) ILRI leads the CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish.• (2) ILRI leads Agriculture-associated Diseases component of the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Improved Nutrition & Health• ILRI participates in five other CGIAR Research Programs: (3) Drylands (4) Humidtropics AVDRC is a partner with ILRI in this CRP (5) Policies, Institutions & Markets (6) Water, Land & Ecosystems (7) Climate Change, Agriculture & Food Security
19. Opportunities for livestock & vegetable researchResearch is needed on: Ways to manage the perishable nature of these products. Innovative technological and institutional solutions for food safety and public health problems that suit developing countries. Processes, regulations and institutional arrangements regarding use of banned or inappropriate pesticides, polluted water or wastewater for irrigation, and untreated sewage sludge for fertilizer. Innovative mechanisms that will ensure access by the poor to these growing markets. Ways to include small-scale producers in markets demanding increasingly stringent food quality, safety and uniformity standards.
20. Opportunities for refining integrated production systemsRole of animals in provision ofmanure for vegetable production Safe practices Appropriate amounts Appropriate storage Regulatory environmentRole of dual-purpose food-feed crops Producing vegetables and residues for animal feed Cowpea and other pulsesUse of vegetable waste for livestock feed From household waste to waste from large scale processing. Could be pursued in value chain research in CRP 3.7 or CRP 1.2.
21. Meat & Veg: Natural, high-value, partners for a better worldSteven Mwamvana.42 years old.• Pesticide sprayer.• Potato, bean, chicken and guinea fowl farmer.• Vegetable grower.• Lead livestock farmer.Khulungira Village,central Malawi.
22. better lives through livestock ilri.org The presentation has a Creative Commons license. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given to ILRI.