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Livestock water productivity and its implications for developing countries: harnessing WP in crop-livestock systems of SSA
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Livestock water productivity and its implications for developing countries: harnessing WP in crop-livestock systems of SSA

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A presentation prepared by Don Peden et al. for the IWMI-ILRI-ICRISAT-BMZ workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, September 24-26, 2007.

A presentation prepared by Don Peden et al. for the IWMI-ILRI-ICRISAT-BMZ workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, September 24-26, 2007.

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  • 1. Livestock Water Productivity and its implications for developing countries Harnessing WP in crop-livestock systems of SSA An IWMI-ILRI-ICRISAT-BMZ workshop, 24-26 September 2007, Addis Ababa Presented by Don Peden but with many contributors
  • 2. First key message
    • Reduce poverty (People)
    • Increase food production (Livestock)
    • Reduce pressure on scarce water resources and the environment
    Integrating livestock and water development in developing countries can help:
  • 3. Second key message
    • Water used for African animal production be easily be reduced by more than 50%.
  • 4. Third key message
    • We need a water accounting framework to unravel the complexity of livestock-water interactions.
      • specifically Livestock water productivity (LWP)
  • 5. LWP framework emerged from research supported by: &
  • 6. The CA synthesis
    • Water for food; water for life was launched at World Water Day (22 March 2007) in Rome and Stockholm
    • This presentation builds on the chapter, “ Livestock and water for human development ”
  • 7. The CA synthesis: One key action point:
    • Increasing water’s productivity is an effective means of intensifying agricultural production and reducing environmental degradation.
    • Integrating livestock in a balanced way to increase the productivity of livestock water is important in rainfed areas.
  • 8. CA & CPWF: We used a livestock water productivity (LWP) assessment framework
    • LWP = ∑(Net beneficial outputs)
    • ∑ (Depleted water)
    • Benefits: Milk, meat, hides, manure, wealth savings, cultural roles
    • Depleted water: Evaporation, transpiration, discharge/flood
  • 9. LWP Schematic Rain Surface inflow Non-productive depletion Transpiration Ground H 2 O recharge
    • A water accounting approach
    • Scales: Field & farms to large river basins
    Agricultural production system Water loss or depletion
  • 10. LWP Schematic Rain Surface inflow Non-productive depletion Transpiration GW H 2 O recharge Trees Pas- ture Feed crops Food crops Grain Residues Evapo-ration Discharge & flood Contami- nation Available animal feeds Drinking Water Conserving strategies Benefits from plants Feed Sourcing strategies Imported feed Net Animal benefits Meat, milk, hide, manure, power & wealth Productivity- enhancing strategies
  • 11. Strategy 1: Strategic feed sourcing
    • Focus on water for feed that can be 50 to 100 times more than drinking.
    • Make effective use of crop residues/byproducts.
    • Improve pasture by transferring evaporation and excessive run-off to transpiration.
    • Remember, procuring feed is a primary African livelihood challenge with high labour costs.
  • 12. Strategy 1: Strategic feed sourcing
    • Science has failed to understand water cost of feed production.
    • Varying methods &concepts.
    • A 70 fold variability in WP of feed is probably not a biological reality.
    Example reported water productivity of animal feeds 0.1 – 0.7 USA rangeland 1.1 – 1.7 Irrigated alfalfa 6.0 – 8.0 Irrigated sorghum WP (kg/m3) Feed
  • 13. Strategy 2: Enhance animal productivity
    • Improve:
    • Animal nutrition & veterinary care.
    • Animal genetic resources.
    • Access to markets & value-added animal products.
    • Grazing, watering and housing.
    • Reduced labour and other costs.
    • But , distinguish production from productivity.
    Drought hardy Kenana cattle, Gezira, Sudan
  • 14. Strategy 2: Enhance animal productivity
    • Provide:
    • Alternative wealth savings
    • Drought risk insurance.
    • Apply:
    • Animal/water demand management approach.
    • Integrate Animal Sciences into agricultural water development
    Drought hardy Kenana cattle, Gezira, Sudan
  • 15. Strategy 2: Enhance animal productivity
    • Farm power:
    • Water used to maintain draft animals is an input into crop but not animal production.
    • Ethiopian soils too heavy for people power.
    • Trade-off between using water and petrol.
  • 16. Strategy 3: Reduce grazing and watering impact on water resources
    • Limit conversion of range to annual croplands >Grass is best vegetation to protect soil<
    • Reduce run-off, erosion, sedimentation.
    • Promote transpiration, infiltration, soil water holding capacity & vegetation cover.
  • 17. Strategy 3: Reduce grazing and watering impact on water resources
    • Community management of range & water.
    • Limit stocking rates and grazing pressure.
    • Establish riparian buffer zones.
    • Apply zero grazing and watering.
    • Adopt conservation agriculture.
    • Provide quality drinking water for dairy cows.
  • 18. Strategy 3: Reduce grazing and watering impact on water resources
    • Restrict animal access to water to avoid:
      • Loss of riparian & aquatic habitats.
      • Risk to human health.
      • Water quality loss.
      • Sedimentation.
  • 19. Case 1 Preliminary Comparison of WP in rainfed farming in Ethiopia * Source: LWP from ILRI; Grain WP from ECSA (2005); Tomato WP from SG2000. 0.73 Tomatoes Water harvesting & drip irrigation 0.68 Multiple animal products & services Rainfed mixed crop-livestock Wheat Barley Teff Commodity 0.18 0.18 0.28 WP (US$/m 3 ) Rainfed grain production System & Scale
  • 20.
    • LWP compares favourably with house-hold water harvesting WP.
    • Even without efforts to increase either LWP.
    • But improved methods and filling data gaps still needed.
    • And complexity of mixed crop livestock systems is challenging.
    Case 1 Preliminary Comparison of WP in rainfed farming in Ethiopia
  • 21. Case 2 Cattle corridor, Nakasongola, Uganda (Problem: Low LWP)
    • Overgrazing; charcoal making; lost vegetation
    • High run-off + evaporation
    • Reduced infiltration
    • Contaminated domestic water.
    WHAT IS WATER PRODUCTIVITY OF THIS LAND?
  • 22. Case 2 Cattle corridor, Nakasongola, Uganda (Problem: Low LWP)
    • Ecosystem flips to LOW WP state.
    • Termites dominant.
    • Without vegetation, clay soils expand with light rain sealing surface, preventing infiltration & limiting plant production.
  • 23. Case 2 Cattle corridor, Nakasongola, Uganda (Problem: Low LWP)
    • Better design and community management of community ponds and drinking troughs.
    • Better watering practices.
    • Reseeding upslope pasture.
    • Erosion control.
  • 24. Case 3 Household water harvesting (with Sasakawa Global 2000 in Ethiopia)
    • Problem:
    • Rainfed farming; low productivity; very poor households (<$300/year); high drought risk.
    • Long treks for water for people & animals.
    • Milk production < 3 litre/day/cow.
    • Highly degraded land and water resources.
  • 25.
    • Integrating livestock and crop production
    Case 3 Household water harvesting – Underground tank Home consumption Give water Zero-grazing & hybrid cow Adding value & markets Benefits > $1500 High LWP
  • 26. Key Message #1
    • Integrating livestock & water development in developing countries can help:
    • Reduce poverty.
    • Increase food.
    • Reduce pressure on scarce water and the environment.
  • 27. Key Message #2
    • LWP compares favourable with irrigated horticulture.
    • Water depleted by livestock keeping could be easily be reduced by more than 50%.
  • 28. Key Message #3
    • A water accounting framework could be a useful tool to help target interventions that will increase agricultural water productivity.
  • 29. We offer the prototype LWP framework as a tool for use in this BMZ project. THANK YOU!