Livestock feed as a component of smallholder systems: Tradeoffs in biomass/crop residues use

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Bruno Gérard …

Bruno Gérard

FAP Symposium on Feed in Smallholder Systems, Luang Prabang, Laos, 18-19 November 2010

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  • 1. Livestock feed as a component of smallholder systems: Tradeoffs in biomass/crop residues use
    Bruno Gérard
    FAP Symposium on Feed in Smallholder Systems
    LuangPrabang, Laos, 18-19 November 2010
  • 2. Key Issues
    Mixed crop-livestock small farms is a large proportion of farming enterprises in developing countries
    Changes dues to external drivers such as demographic pressure, development of urban markets, increased demand for crop and livestock products, climate variability and change, biofuel…
    • changes in the use of biomass
    • 3. increasing importance of CR to feed livestock, emerging CR marketing opportunities
    • 4. tradeoff in most systems: short term benefits of using crop residues to feed livestock versus leaving the crop residues in the field to maintain/improve soil productivity (nutrient balance, erosion control, and soil health)
  • (From Herrero et al. 2010)
  • 5. Manure
    Urines
    Manure
    Urines
    RANGELAND
    CROPLAND
    Fertilizers
    Fertilizers
    Feed
    LIVESTOCK
    Feed
    HOUSEHOLD
    MARKETS
    Residues
    Weeds
    Live
    animals
    Meat
    Milk
    Forage
    Food
    Wood
    Grains
    Residues
    Weeds
    Live
    animals
    Meat
    Milk
    Forage
    Food
    Wood
    Grains
    From Powell et al. 1996
  • 6. Feedtrade
    Specialization
    Crop/livestock integration at the household level
    Integration
    Conflict risks
    SA/SEA
    SSA
    SSA peri-urban
    Level of system’s intensification
    Demographic pressure
  • 7. 1966
    2004
  • 8. What we know/what has been done
    • Nutrient cycling in mixed farming systems
    • 9. Dual-purpose crops
    • 10. Monitoring of the evolution of some mixed farming systems
    • 11. Feed deficit assessments at various scales (but gaps)
    • 12. Conceptual frameworks and models (do they serve the purpose?)
    • 13. Conservation agriculture research
    • 14. Feed markets (but incomplete)
    - On going SLP global project on CR tradeoffs
    But how much research findings have been put into use?
  • 15. Gaps and challenges
    • Dealing with complexity at different space and time scales and responding to site and household specific conditions looking at short term returns of resources allocation
    • 16. How to better articulate research findings in meaningful way for development
    • 17. Policy
    • 18. Decision support for development interventions
    • 19. Participatory research addressing farm and landscape scale issues
    • 20. Long term effects of CR management on soil productivity
    • 21. Livestock and conservation agriculture?
  • Way forward?
    Sustainable intensification of mixed farming systems
    Key role of external inputs
    - Fertilizer -> increase biomass quantity
    • Dual purpose crops -> increase feed quantity and quality
    • 22. Better livestock management (breed, health, feed)
    Combined with better market and private sector participation
    • Increase animal offtake
    • 23. Reduce pressure on biomass?
    Need for enabling environments and novel participatory approaches (IP and/or something else?)
  • 24. Pretty strong drivers so better not ‘swim against the flow’!