Livestock development for better water use in the Nile Basin

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Presented by Don Peden, Tilahun Amede, Seleshi Awulachew, Hamid Faki, Denis Mpairwe, Amare Haileslassie, and Paulo van Breugel at the International Congress on Water 2011 Integrated Water Resources Management in Tropical and Subtropical Drylands, Mekelle, Ethiopia, 19-26 September 2011.

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Livestock development for better water use in the Nile Basin

  1. 1. Livestock Development for Better Water Use in the Nile Basin<br />Don Peden, Tilahun Amede, Seleshi Awulachew, Hamid Faki, Denis Mpairwe, Amare Haileslassie, and Paulo van Breugel<br />International Congress on Water 2011 Integrated Water Resources Management in Tropical and Subtropical Drylands <br />Mekelle, Ethiopia, 19-26 September 2011<br />
  2. 2. <ul><li> International Livestock Research Institute
  3. 3. International Water Management Institute
  4. 4. Sudan Agriculture Research Corporation
  5. 5. Sudan Animal Resources Research Corporation
  6. 6. Makerere University
  7. 7. Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research</li></ul>Details: <br /><ul><li> Forthcoming book on Agriculture and water in the Nile
  8. 8. CPWF PN37 (Nile Basin Livestock Water Productivity)</li></li></ul><li>Take home message<br /><ul><li>Up to one trillion m3 of Nile rainfall are lost yearly as non-productive evapotranspiration (ET).
  9. 9. Increasing rainfed agricultural water productivity can help capture this water and divert demand on basin blue water. </li></li></ul><li>Approach<br /><ul><li>Production systems
  10. 10. Livestock, people, and water
  11. 11. Primary opportunities for better water use
  12. 12. Principles of livestock water productivity
  13. 13. Examples</li></li></ul><li>Major livestock production systems<br />Large scale irrigation <br />Livestock: hyper-arid<br />Livestock: arid<br />Mixed: arid<br />Mixed: temperate<br />Livestock: humid<br />Mixed: humid<br />
  14. 14. Countries, livestock & people<br />
  15. 15. Systems, livestock & people<br /><ul><li> One TLU = 250 kg live animal biomass
  16. 16. Animal demand for feed > human food by weight</li></li></ul><li>TLU density across the Nile Basin<br />Low <br />(< 5 TLU/km2)<br />High<br />(100 km2)<br />One TLU = 250 kg live animal biomass<br />O<br />
  17. 17. WHO minimum<br />
  18. 18.
  19. 19. Primary water depletion pathway in the Nile Basin<br />Six livestock production systems :<br /><ul><li>Cover 60% of the basin
  20. 20. Support 50% of the people
  21. 21. Sustain 90% of the livestock biomass
  22. 22. Receive 85% of basin rainfall of 1.7 trillion m3
  23. 23. But livestock feed uses only 66 billion m3 for maintenance basin wide, 90X more than they drink</li></ul>Lose one trillion m3 as non-productive evapotranspiration (mostly E) that does not contribute to the Nile’s blue water.<br />
  24. 24. Primary opportunity for more effective water use <br /><ul><li>Convert non-productive E to T by rehabilitating degraded farm and rangelands (e.g. Tigray).
  25. 25. Increase effective crop and animal production per unit of T.</li></ul>Implies increasing water productivity<br />(kg/m3, kg/$, $/m3, $/$)<br />[kg by dry not fresh weights!!]<br />
  26. 26. Simplified LWP framework<br />Feed <br />sourcing strategies<br />Productivity<br />enhancing<br />Strategies<br />Ground<br />Transpiration <br /><ul><li> food-feed crops
  27. 27. pasture
  28. 28. nature </li></ul>Rain<br />Inflow<br /> Discharge <br />Drinking<br /> Evaporation<br />Water conserving strategies <br />Beneficial<br />outputs:<br /> Infiltration<br />
  29. 29. What options for procuring more agricultural water in the basin<br /><ul><li>Focus on rainfed crop and livestock production
  30. 30. Convert E to T
  31. 31. Increase crop and livestock water productivity
  32. 32. 50% increase in crop and pasture WP is feasible (Rocktrom et al. 2003)
  33. 33. LWP ∝ CWP
  34. 34. Similar additional gains in livestock WP also feasible (Peden et al. 2009)</li></ul><br />
  35. 35. Example 1: <br />Integrated termite management<br />(Uganda’s Cattle corridor)<br />Before<br />(nil)<br />After 1 year<br />(3000 kg/ha)<br />
  36. 36. Example 2: <br />Use crop residues & increase CWP<br />> ”free water”<br />> Use dual purpose crops<br />> LWP ∝ CWP<br />
  37. 37. Example 3: <br />Strategic drinking water management<br /><ul><li> Land
  38. 38. Water
  39. 39. Human health
  40. 40. Animal health
  41. 41. Landscapes</li></li></ul><li>Summary<br /><ul><li>The Nile Basin loses about one trillion m3 of rainfall as non-productive ET in six production systems.
  42. 42. Capturing this water as “T” increases basin WP and diverts demands on blue water.
  43. 43. Better feed, water, land, landscape, and animal management are also needed.
  44. 44. Requires mix of technical, socio-economic, financial and institutional interventions.
  45. 45. Shift thinking from kg/m3 to kg/$ (Demand management)</li></li></ul><li>  Ameseghinallehu Yekin yelley Thank you <br />

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