ILRI Ethiopia goat and chicken projects: Potential synergies with LIVES

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Presented by Tadelle Dessie and Okeyo Mwai at the LIVES Research Planning Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 26-28 March 2013


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ILRI Ethiopia goat and chicken projects: Potential synergies with LIVES

  1. 1. ILRI Ethiopia goat and chicken projects: Potential synergies with LIVES Tadelle Dessie and Okeyo Mwai LIVES Research Planning Workshop Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 26-28 March 2013
  2. 2. Outline Community based goat breed improvement  Identify and provide access to improved breeding stocks that respond to improved feeding and management Indigenous chicken breed improvement  Breaking Vicious cycle of high chicken mortality and low productivity
  3. 3. Opportunity exists to drive substantial productivity gains through implementing breeding programs that are functional and sustainable – Identification and delivery of genetics Smallholder Value machines Opportunity Dissemination of Design and moderately improved, implementation of vaccinated chicks participatory and functional CBBP Egg production+100% Increased growth rate Body weight + 100% Increased milk production Mortality -70% Benefit $XXX $XXX
  4. 4. MoARD Harnessing genetic diversity for improving goat productivity in Ethiopia and CameronEIAR IBC EWCA OARI SARI ARARI TARI
  5. 5. Project goals and purpose Goals:  improve productivity and income of smallholder goat producers  providing access to improved animals that respond to improved feeding and management, and  Facilitating targeting of specific market opportunities Purpose:  Develop sustainable community-based goat breeding schemes that suit the communities’ conditions and farmers’ needs
  6. 6. Project sites and partner projects Wag-Abergelle and Tankua-Abergelle CRP 3.7  Breed: Abergelle North Gonder LIVES  Breed: Central highland West Shoa LIVES  Breed: Central Highland Konso SARI  Breed: Weyto-Guji Bati LIVES???  Breed: Central Highland
  7. 7. Common economically important traits of Goats• Production Increased – Rate of growth Productivity – Milk production • Increased amount & value of animal products sold /unit – Meat quality Selection / value of inputs – Reproduction improvement • Meat & milk and • Within-breed selection skin?• Adaptability – Temperature Additional value to smallholders – Poor feeds • $XX per animal – Disease/parasite tolerance • $XX per kid (incremental value over ruminants in a traditional system)
  8. 8. Phase 1 Path to sustainability Phase 2 Phase 3 Ongoing Breeding program per Targeting and breed established and Functional CBBP Analysis is operationalKey activities  Target sites identified  Breeding structures • Develop appropriate and breeds & systems characterized developed genotype  Define breeding  Enabling environment • Develop/refine objectives - Ranking created delivery options experiments  Market analysis to • Evaluation of the locate and quantify key areas of demand for breeding program goat meat and milk documented and used in • Impact assessment designing improvement programsOutcomes Sustainable and long term benefit to smallholders Scalability of a genetic solution - This model can be implemented simultaneously in multiple geographies
  9. 9. Community-based breeding• Participatory – decentralized breeding plans and programs• Improvement programs carried out by communities of smallholder farmers often at subsistence level• Community based breeding considers proper consideration of farmers breeding objectives, infrastructure, participation and ownership
  10. 10. Delivery (Dissemination) of genetic superiority• Often a challenge when setting up a new program especially in developing countries• Delivering improved seed stock to local farmers needs a critical thinking – Involving farmers and other partners – Breeders association/cooperatives • Communal use of selected bucks through agreed norms – Develop /adapt appropriate technologies & their innovative applications – Developing simple and effective identification and recording system • Needs innovative use of available infrastructure and IT technology
  11. 11. New technologies harnessed  Testing Open Data Kit (ODK) for field data collection  Questionnaire, Phenotypic measurements, GPS waypoints, pictures, performance records ……. Nairobi Addis Server Server Field enumeration using ODKODK installedon Galaxy SII
  12. 12. Conclusions/ critical issues/ Concluding Recommendations• Participation required from multiple partners and input providers in order to achieve long- term sustainability• Data capture/results synthesis and feedback deserves critical attention to ensure sustainability• Need for improved market access• Evaluate smart application of repro & genomic techs ( estrus synchronization, AI, MAS) and as potential accelerators
  13. 13. Improving village chicken production to elevate livelihoods of poor people
  14. 14. Poultry production in Ethiopia• Village system responsible for majority of poultry production (more than 90% meat and egg) Poultry offers poor people pathway out of poverty (by and for the poor!!!!!! –real opportunity)
  15. 15. Vicious cycle of high poultry mortality and low productivity requires systemic change Justification for change High mortality drives a vicious cycle • Low feasibility of vaccination in backyard systems (low demand, plus access challenges) means a health or Reduced Limited care genetic intervention alone would be productivity of flock unlikely to deliver sustainable benefit • Establishing a breeding program creates the infrastructure and scale (especially High for vaccinating chicks) as well as the mortality financial incentive for farmers to take better care of their poultry• High mortality and low productivity reduces the incentive for farmers to • Opportunity to break the vicious cycle, invest significant effort in caring for improving both productivity and birds survivability through a mix of moderate• Without basic care and vaccination, breed improvement, and vaccination mortality remains high, impacting productivity. • Requires establishment of a delivery• Basic practices such housing, watering, system that should become self- egg removal are not applied, further sustaining in the long-term impacting productivity
  16. 16. What can we offer?Genetically impoved indignous birds in their 6th generation(products of within breed selection programs)
  17. 17. Overall objective• To improve production of village chickens through selective breeding using participatory approachTrait preference:• PRA (participatory rural appraisal) conducted and farmers identify traits of preference • Egg production • Age at first egg • Growth
  18. 18. Breeding program to improve local chicken breed (Horro)Mass selection based on own performance: – Growth: based on live weight at 16 wks in both sexes – Age at first egg in females; and – Cumulative Egg number at 45 weeks in females
  19. 19. Genetic improvement in Cumulative egg number at 45 weeks of age through 5 generations of selection% increase frombase population Selection effect from: 123.5 Generation 5 114.7 Generation 4 73.5 Generation 3 79.4 Generation 2 41.1 Generation 1Base (34) Base population 0 1 2 3 4 5 Generation
  20. 20. Genetic improvement in Age at First egg (AFE) through 5 generations of selection Selection effectAge at First egg from: 148 Generation 5 151 Generation 4 150 Generation 3 147 Generation 2 182 Generation 1 203 Base population 0 1 2 3 4 5 Generation
  21. 21. The simplest and lowest cost intervention is to disseminate improved indigenous chickens, with some improved management Key elements Establish a supply of Breeding Units Community/Farmers chickens with improved (Improved Horro) growth, egg production feed conversion and disease- Genetically improved hens and cocks resistance traits  Potentially within-breed Model breeders selection Multiplier flocks established Eggs Day-old chicks and scaled-up via mini- Mini Hatcheries Farmers hatcheries When target scale is reached, hatcheries begin Vaccines Eggs sale of day-old improved Medicines Live chickens chicks to farmers Chicks vaccinated by poultry workers in the mini- Community/ hatcheries Market
  22. 22. Deploying a hardier, more productive chicken will raise both the income and nutrition of smallholdersCommon economically important traits• Disease resistance – Marek’s disease Increased – Parasite tolerance Productivity• Productivity • Increased egg production Selection / • Increased weight gain – Age at first eggs improvement • Increased hatchability and – Length of laying series chick survival • Within-breed selection – Clutches per year – Clutch size Additional value to – smallholders Hatchability – Daily weight gain • $xxxx per hen/year • $xxx per male/year – Body weight (8 week, 12-month) (incremental value over birds in a – Broodiness traditional system) – Egg weight• Adaptability – Plumage color / form – Heat tolerance
  23. 23. Scale can be achieved quickly through multiplier flocks in village-based mini-hatcheries Phase 1 Phase 2 2 years Phase 3 Ongoing Selection / Dissemination / Supply to development multiplication smallholdersKey activities • Research project identifying and • Establishment of multiplier flock. • Ongoing supply of chicks from the testing different sources of • multiplier flock Starts with initial flock of female indigenous chickens. • birds (and suitable number of Some chicks retained as • Could involve within-breed cocks) selected or developed in replacements to sustain multiplier selection or cross-breeding Phase 1 flock • Rapid multiplication over period • Male and female chicks • Might take 2 to 3 years (we of 24-30 months to achieve scale vaccinated and sold to farmers have it). • • •Outcomes Create initial flock: Grow multiplier flock (hens) Supply vaccinated chicks to farmers, – 100 hens – Start: 100 while sustaining flock – 10 male, 10 female per year – Appropriate # of cocks – 12 months: 1,970 – Benefit: $???? per smallholder – 18 months: 38,800 – 24 months: 765,000 – millions smallholders – 30 months: 15 million – More million smallholders
  24. 24. Poultry’s high rate of reproduction enables rapid scale; Distribution could begin after 18 months Phase 2 Months 6 12 18 24 30 No chick distribution Limited distribution (5-10%) Full disseminationSize ofmultiplier 100 100* 1,970 38,800 765,000 MillionsflockNumber ofsmallholders 7,300 145,000 millions Morebenefited millionsThis model can be implemented simultaneously in multiple geographies .
  25. 25. Additional Recommendations -chicken• Continue animal health investment to determine if lifelong disease resistance can be conferred by either a single vaccination to the chick, or through breeding (Newcastle, Marek’s disease)• Opportunity to breed for disease resistance, or for synergy between breed and vaccine
  26. 26. LIVES’ Project -opportunity• Enable the projects to engage key actors in identifying priority researchable issue as well as translate research outputs to outcomes and impact at scale• Create platform for near real-time learning, including use of lessons from elsewhere to achieve common goals• Help to develop/strengthen capacity of actors (formal (student supervisions etc.) & informal)

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