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Potential-interventions in smallholder irrigated horticultural crops production value chain development in Ethiopia
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Potential-interventions in smallholder irrigated horticultural crops production value chain development in Ethiopia

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Presented by Edossa Etissa (EIAR) at the LIVES Commodity Value Chain Development Inception Workshop, Addis Ababa, 21–24 January 2013 …

Presented by Edossa Etissa (EIAR) at the LIVES Commodity Value Chain Development Inception Workshop, Addis Ababa, 21–24 January 2013


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  • 1. Potential-Interventions in SmallholderIrrigated Horticultural Crops Production Value Chain Development Edossa Etissa (Horticulture, Irrigation Agronomy and Plant Nutrition Melkassa Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research)LIVES Commodity Value Chain Development Inception Workshop Addis Ababa, 21–24 January 2013
  • 2. 1.IntroductionIn sub-Saharan Africa more than 95% of farmed land israinfedThe majorities of the population make their living fromrainfed agriculture, and depend to a large extent onsmall-holder, subsistence agriculture for their livelihoodsecurityClimate variability plays an important role indetermining productivity of much of the world’s rain-fedgrown annual food crops in the tropics
  • 3. 1.Introduction……In areas where rainfall is erratic, has high temporal andspatial variations or where short dry periods can beexpected in the wet season, as it frequently occurs inthe Rift Valley area of Ethiopia, relying on rainfedagriculture poses substantial risks to farmers
  • 4. 1.Introduction……Table. Rainfall probability of exceedance (PE) using normaldistribution method at Melkassa Kiremit (rainy season) season(1977-2011) (RAINBOW Program) Return period Probability of exceedence Rain fall years (PE) [%] events (mm) 10 10 929.18 5 20 860.69 3.33 30 813.46 2.50 40 774.52 2 50 739.33 1.67 60 705.22 Average 1.43 70 669.85 1.25 80 629.95 1.11 90 577.28 Torrential rain, exceeds 50 mm, many 30-40 mm --- Adama flood
  • 5. 1.Introduction……The optimum transplanting date for rainfed vegetable productionforecasted by INSTAT+ around Melkassa was found to be on 177DOY.Using this reference transplanting date, evaluation of rainfedvegetable production using CropWat model simulation during thestart of rainy and crop planting season (July) results indicated thatmost vegetable crops were severely stressed when transplantedon 3rd of July
  • 6. 1.Introduction…Table. Dekadal summary of ETc required as part of supplementary irrigation atvarious growth stages and yield reductions for rainfed vegetable crops(transplanted on 3rd July) at Melkassa estimated by CropWat Growth stages and Irr. Req. (mm) Total Irr. Req. Yield Crops (mm/dek.) reductions Initial Development Mid Late (%) Tomato 0.0 0.0 98.2 97.0 195.2 23.3 Onion (bulb) 0.0 0.0 424.5 216.1 640.6 60.2 Pepper 0.0 8.6 338.9 147.8 495.3 54.2 (green) Cabbage 0.0 51.8 231.7 122.7 406.2 40.5 Green bean 0.0 0.0 21.7 17.5 39.2 5.3 Water melon 0.0 0.0 0.0 16.7 16.7 0.8
  • 7. 1.Introduction..Figure . Trend line of yield-water relation ship (water production function)of tomato Melkashola variety grown from January to April (2012) dry andhot season at Melkassa 90000 80000 Total fresh fruit yield (kg ha -1) 70000 y = 28.95x - 2811. R² = 0.918 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Irrigation depth (m3 ha-1)
  • 8. 1.Introduction..Growers should be told that there is high yield reduction under rainfedcondition (vegetable crops, even other cereal crops)Rainfall did not feed Ethiopian population in most areas…(small size-major export beans problem)Use of either supplementary/ full irrigation improved the livelihood ofirrigation users through improved crop production and productivityAvailability of markets and consumers demand for horticultural cropsdrove up the expansion of irrigated agriculture systems in Ethiopia.Tomato and onion are among the most irrigated vegetable crops ofsignificant economic value in the country but the full potential has notbeen exploitedLarge areas are coming under irrigation every season and year-roundproduction of irrigated crops has become very common.
  • 9. 2. Potentials and opportunities in irrigated horticultural crops production2.1. Irrigated crops (many crops, food, cash, fiber, and other crops) Vegetable crops Onion Many varieties developed bulb production seed production
  • 10. Small holder onion seed production
  • 11. 2. Potentials…Tomato (for various purposes) Fresh varieties Multipurpose varieties Hybrid varieties (Private Companies)
  • 12. 2. Potentials…Tomato (for various purposes) Fresh varieties Multipurpose varieties Hybrid varieties (Private Companies)
  • 13. Drip irrigated tomato (Melkassa)2. Potentials…ShallotOther vegetablesCabbage, Carrot, Swiss chard, Radish, Snapbeans, Eggplant, Watermelon, Squash, Pumpkin, etc…Imported by Seed Companies
  • 14. 2. Potentials…ShallotOther vegetablesCabbage, Carrot, Swiss chard, Radish, Snapbeans, Eggplant, Watermelon, Squash, Pumpkin, etc…Imported by Seed Companies
  • 15. 2. Potentials…ShallotOther vegetablesCabbage, Carrot, Swiss chard, Radish, Snapbeans, Eggplant, Watermelon, Squash, Pumpkin, etc…Imported by Seed Companies
  • 16. 2. Potentials…Capsicum pepper Varieties developed Hot pepper Colouring Oleoresin Chilies
  • 17. Drip irrigated hot pepper Many varieties are available
  • 18. 2. Potentials….2.2. Fruits crops productionAvailability many improved varieties Apple and other highland fruits
  • 19. 2. Potentials…. Avocado (cultivated from highland to lowland) grow would everywhere in Ethiopia highland –mid altitude area (small size) two harvest per year
  • 20. Four years orchardHASS, best export avocado, Melkassa
  • 21. 2. Potentials … Bananas (Grand Naine, Williams-1, Robusta, Poyo, Giant and Dwarf Cavendish, etc) Export varieties (mid to low land area) One and half year banana (Melkassa)(reach maturity in a year in hotter areas
  • 22. 2. Potentials …Mango (four varieties) (mid to low land)
  • 23. Five years orchardThrough high density plantation with appropriate orchard and irrigation water management ,all fruits would be export commodities with in less than 5 years
  • 24. 2. Potentials…Papaya (for various purposes) Solo papaya Small, medium and large fruit sizes Dioecious papaya Small, medium and large fruit sizes (many varieties are under verification)
  • 25. 2. Potentials…Date palm (very dry areas of Afar, Somali, etc…)Varieties are available Multiplication using tissue culture -underway
  • 26. 2. Potentials… Planting material multiplication capacities Banana tissue culture EIAR (Melkassa)-(Amhara Oromia) Private companies (Two) Pineapple Tissue Culture (EIAR, Jimma)
  • 27. 2. Potentials…Millions of seedlings can be multiplied, it is possible todevelop many-many-many banana developmentcorridors like Arba Minch even not region, but in eachzones-----we have best export varieties,If proper value chain is developed, export of EthiopianBanana can be started with in less than four years….. Many visit Melkassa / telephone call from in country/ abroad requesting information on quantity
  • 28. 2. Potentials… Fruit, vegetable and fruit seedling marketingMillions
  • 29. 3. Major Challenges in Irrigated Horticultural Crops Production Value ChainRainfed/ irrigated crops production dependson supply of good quality of seeds as seedquality is very important in horticultural cropsproduction since it is the initial key inputs inhousehold irrigated farm business, all otherfollowing remaining farm activities aredepends on.“New Chapter”: Development of proper cropmanagement & inputs ----that can be used bygrowers, by growers --------not variety
  • 30. 3. Major Challenges…The highest percentage, 35.48% of tomato growersreplied that the most seed sources for their tomatocultivations are from open market,while 29.03% of tomato growers use as seed sourcesfrom another farmer.These tomato growers replied that the seeds theyuse are very low quality.…… we continued developing varieties --- withoutmaking those released/ best ones available forgrowers
  • 31. 3. Major Challenges…Over 45% of onion growers obtain their onionseeds from open market;followed by 22.68% who obtain onion seedsfrom another farmer.
  • 32. 3. Major Challenges…Among the major problems onion growers arefacing are about 25.31% growers replied thatthe seeds they use are not true type and19.14% has explained that the onion seedsused are not true type and are poor ingermination, the bulb were non-uniform, variable bulb colors with white colorrather than red and, variable in shapes anddue to high out crossed seed and otheradulterations.
  • 33. 3. Major Challenges…3.2. FruitsFruit production depend on quality planting materialsSeedling propagation and multiplication No supply of selected scion variety with appropriate root stock varietyFruit growers do not get grafted and qualitymaterials, they plant seedling materials -- with full ofproblems
  • 34. 3. Major Challenges…No planting material (seedling) quality controlSome private…. sell uncertified, diseased infectedseedlings No certification at all Pest introduction …. from one area to another
  • 35. 2. Potentials… Private Nursery
  • 36. 3. Major Challenges…3.1.2. Availability of chemical inputs Fertilizers import is scheduled for rainfed (June) Not available for irrigated agriculture (adulterated) Pesticides- Target pesticide some times not available Chemical spray not scientific based (up to more than 8 times spray)
  • 37. 3. Major Challenges…3.1.3. Availability of specific production packages forspecific crops and seasons Year round vegetable planting (difficult to formulate agronomic and irrigation package) (all production packages should be season specific)
  • 38. 3. Major Challenges…2.3. Absence of defined crop agronomic management practices ---for each main crops –for each major production areaMany pieces of practices…….spacing + fertilizer rate + … + ….+…. row planting= Verified---validated---demonstratedGrowers go/ went back to their traditional practices all adopt improved variety, but not agronomic (why ?)As result –do we see improvement of crop productivity over years(not much)
  • 39. 3. Major Challenges…2.4. Absence of harvest, post harvest managementand standards horticultural crops (NO)Is there extension in these area of intervention?2.5. Packing and transport system Papaya in a sack = like wheat/ teff banana in ISUZU-----60-70 quintals (6-7 tons) All fruits ----------- similar way
  • 40. 3. Major Challenges…3.1. Poor skill in horticultural crops productionIrrigated horticultural crops- require special skill3.1. Poor skill in irrigation water related managements supplementary/ fullIrrigated crops production requires (special irrigation skill)(Is there extension that cope up with the requirement ?)
  • 41. 3. Major Challenges…Rainfed vegetable –requires supplementary irrigation Farmers field (End of August) Mid of September (false maturity)
  • 42. 3. Major Challenges…Rainfed –early rainfall cessation Tomato grown with rainfall only Research field Yield reduction occur for many crops in the Central Rift Valley area such as Teff, maize, beans, & others Under size of export bean/ serious problem No one estimates yield reduction due to early rainfall cessation for any crops
  • 43. 3. Major Challenges…Supplementary irrigation is required during dry spellsfor many rainfed crops (Central Rift Valley area),Full irrigation is required after cessation of rainfall(short season as compared to crop growth periods)otherwise high yield reduction occur every yearSeasonal crops (vegetable) irrigation requirement isnot yet supported with knowledgeAll irrigation users (growers) use their own experience
  • 44. 3. Major Challenges…Many –many irrigation related publications areavailable , (thesis works), but not synthesised in touseable forms for growersIrrigated cash crops -four types of producers (small holder, share cropper, tenant producers, large scale producers)Irrigation development agent ….(no skill),Irrigation management is beyond the capacity ofdevelopment workers
  • 45. 3. Major Challenges…Irrigated crops growers in the country practice arbitraryproduction techniques from season to season and fromlocation to location, from crop to crop.In addition, pesticide and fertilizer application as well asirrigation water management practices are underfarmers’ traditional intuition
  • 46. 3. Major Challenges…Absence of efficient marketing system Killing vegetable/ horticulture development Daily farm gate price is fixed by traders (Piyasa) Brokers-brokers-, with full of cheating the producers No planned production, … season to season, district to district (no one is giving pieces of advice) long lived problemIs it possible to transform small holder into entrepreneurs?
  • 47. 3. Major Challenges…Many GO, NGOs, and others are involved in irrigatedhorticulture development, -- in development ofirrigation schemesThey do not work together along the value chain,Many of them do not go beyond simple varietydemonstrationLess continuity and improvement of practices alongthe value chain –generic problems
  • 48. 4. ConclusionMulti-stakeholder/ actors are required for the development ofirrigated horticultural cropsAs experience from IPMS, LIVES project will contribute for thedevelopment of irrigated fruits & vegetable in Ethiopianagriculture.We bring changes if all stakeholder work together, throughintegration with commitments along the value chainProper inputs + practices ------- marketing, that bring growers satisfactions, consumers satisfactionsIs it possible to transform small holder into entrepreneurs ----Yes
  • 49. Thanks