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Sustainable utilization of agro-industrial wastes through integration of bio-energy and mushroom production

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Presented by Amelia Kivaisi (Principal Investigator, Project 04, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania) at the Launching of Bio-Innovate Programme, ILRI, Nairobi, 16 March 2011.

Presented by Amelia Kivaisi (Principal Investigator, Project 04, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania) at the Launching of Bio-Innovate Programme, ILRI, Nairobi, 16 March 2011.

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  • The title of our project is sustainable utilization of agro-industrial wastes through integration of bio-energy and mushroom production. I would like to begin my presentation with an overview.
  • After a brief background and problem statement, I will present to you project goal and objectives. I will then provide a summary of the expected outputs and outcomes, and end my presentation by introducing to you the implementing consortium.
  • Agriculture is the mainstay of the Eastern Africa’s economy contributing to the GDP by 22 up to 42%, and coffee and sisal are among the very important cash crops. The problem is that processing of these crops generates large quantities of waste And now more specifically
  • Coffee processing is reported to discard about 99% of the plant biomass as waste, and wet processing generates 15 cubic metres of wastewater and 1 ton of husks per ton of clean beans
  • Likewise, sisal processing for fibre production discards 98% of the leaf biomass as waste. In addition, sisal leaf harvesting leaves about 10,000 boles per hectare on the farm The question is, is this waste utilized at all?
  • The answer is not quite . Unfortunately, the waste is disposed of by burning or simply dumping on site the factories or on the farms or nearby water bodies which is posing environmental hazard and is a wastage of bio-resources with a lot of potential some of which has been demonstrated
  • For coffee waste, the potential has been demonstrated for production of silage, feed, mushrooms and biogas at small scales. However, suitability of most coffee waste fractions as feedstock for bio-processes is limited by toxic constituent substances (phenols, caffein, tannins) , and this is a challenge.
  • On the part of sisal, the situation is more promising because: Sisal leaf decortication waste is used for biogas to electricity production at full scales in Kenya and Tanzania Sisal waste fibres has been demonstrated for mushroom cultivation at small scale Sisal boles sugar has been demonstrated for citric and lactic acid production at bench scales However, when it comes to biogas production, the process is limited by the fibrous nature of the waste and high Carbon to nitrogen ratio
  • To address the bioconversion challenges a number of attempts have been made and they include: Pre-treatment with microorganisms which has been reported to minimize toxic substances in coffee waste Pre-treatment with fungi which significantly improved biogas yields from sisal decortication waste All prior attempts however, lacked pilot-scale verification and targeted single products at a time, while the potential for more is there.
  • This project therefore, seeks to demonstrate at pilot scale, more potential by applying innovative integrated approaches for increased process efficiency and more products from coffee and sisal wastes
  • The first concept starts with the utilization of coffee or sisal waste for mushroom cultivation followed by utilization of the spent mushroom substrate in combination with animal manure and/ or process wastewater for biogas production. The effluent from the biogas digester known as biogas manure is the final product and may be applied on sisal/coffee plantations or be dried and sold for horticulture production
  • The second concept starts with dry coffee waste which is first roasted in Biogas-fired roaster and then used for making High Energy Density Briquettes. Waste heat may be used to dry the waste and/or used to maintain the digester temperature.
  • Hence the project goal is that by 2013, the project has in place………………..
  • To reach the proposed goal, the project will have to achieve the following objectives…………………….
  • The Major expected outputs of the project include ……………………….
  • Major outputs cont..
  • The anticipated major outcomes by 2013 are …..
  • This project will be implemented by a multidisciplinary consortium composed of development partners and product delivery partners. The development partners include, the UDSM in Tanzania, as the lead institution and will work on the sisal post-harvest waste component Pwani University College in Kenya will work on sisal decortication waste Addis Ababa university in Ethiopia will work on coffee waste component Brendenberg University of Technology in Germany will provide technological support for the coffee waste component, and Danish Technical University will provide technological support for the sisal-based components.
  • The product delivery partners include : Mohamed Enterprises Limited in Tanzania will demonstrate the utilization of sisal postharvest waste Coffee Plantations Development Enterprises in Ethiopia will demonstrate the utilization of coffee waste, and Kilifi Plantations Kenya will demonstrate the utilization of sisal decortication waste
  • I thank you very much for listening
  • Transcript

    • 1. Addis Ababa University, Pwani University College, University of Dar es Salaam Consortium 4-Project 4
    • 2. PRESENTATION OUTLINE
      • Background & Problem statement
      • Goal and Objectives
      • Outputs and Outcomes
      • Implementing Consortium
    • 3. Background
      • Agriculture mainstay of the EA’s economy
        • Contributing to GDP by 22-42%
        • Coffee and sisal among important cash crops
        • Processing generating large quantities of waste
      coffee
    • 4. Background
      • Coffee processing
        • Discards 99% of biomass as waste
        • Wet processing generates 15 cu.m. w/water & 1 ton husks/ton clean beans
      sisal
    • 5. Background
      • Sisal processing
        • Discards 98% of biomass as waste
      • Sisal leaf harvesting leaves about 10,000 boles per hectare on farm
      • Is the waste utilized at all?
      Boles utilizat
    • 6. Utilization of waste
      • Mostly disposed of by burning, dumping on site the factories & farms
        • Posing environmental hazard and contributing to GHG emissions
        • Wastage of bio-resources
          • Potential been demonstrated
      demo
    • 7. Demonstrated potential & Challenges
      • Coffee processing waste potential demonstrated for production of silage, feed, mushroom and biogas at small scale
        • Suitability of most coffee waste fractions as feedstock for bio-processes limited by toxic constituent substances
      sisal
    • 8. Demonstrated potential & Challenges cont.
      • Sisal leaf decortication waste used for biogas to electricity production at full scales in Kenya and Tanzania
      Hale Biogas Plant, Tanzania
    • 9. Demonstrated potential & Challenges cont.
      • Sisal waste fibres demonstrated for mushroom cultivation at small scale
      • Sisal boles demonstrated for citric and lactic acids production at bench scale
        • Biogas production process still limited by fibrous nature of waste and high C:N ratio
      address
    • 10. Prior attempts to address the problems
      • Pre-pretreatment with microorganisms- minimized toxic substances in coffee waste
      • Pre-treatment with fungi- significantly improved biogas yields from sisal decortication waste
        • All prior attempts lacked pilot-scale verification and only targeted single products at a time, while the potential for more is there!
      Project
    • 11. This project
      • Seeks to demonstrate at pilot scale, more potential by applying innovative integrated approaches for increased process efficiency and more products from coffee and sisal-based wastes
      • Two concepts will be investigated
    • 12. Waste Mushroom cultivation using coffee/sisal wastes Digester Biogas Manure Dung Sisal/Coffee plantantions
    • 13.  
    • 14. Project Goal
      • By 2013, the project has in place, pilot scale plants demonstrating the utilization of coffee and sisal wastes (on site) at partner factories by applying integrated approaches for production of edible mushrooms, bio-energy and biogas manure
      Reach goal
    • 15. Project Objectives
      • Establish & demonstrate integrated technologies for mushroom and biogas production from coffee/sisal wastes
      • Evaluate suitability of coffee waste for high energy briquette production utilizing biogas fired roaster
      • Evaluate techno-economic feasibility of the technologies
      • Assess fertilizer value of biogas manure
      • Disseminate
      outputs
    • 16. Major outputs
      • Protocols for integrated production of mushrooms and biogas using coffee and sisal wastes
      • Integrated pilot scale mushroom growing facilities (1000kg/month) and biogas digesters (10 cu.m) at collaborating factories
      • Facility employing Biogas –Fired Infrared Roaster to produce High Energy Density briquettes
    • 17. Major outputs cont.
      • Data on fertilizer value of biogas manures
      • Information on markets for mushrooms and briquettes
      • Data on techno-economic feasibilities of integrated technologies
      • Publications
      • Patents?
      outcomes
    • 18. Major Outcomes by 2013
      • A significant decrease in waste disposed of in vicinity of collaborating factories
      • Increased knowledge and skills in mushroom cultivation and biogas production among factory workers.
      • Increase in number of employees at coll. factories due to mushroom cultivation
      • Product delivery partners involved in running the demonstrated facilities
      consort
    • 19. Implementing Consortium Development Partners Institution Leader Component University of Dar es Salaam , Tanzania (UDSM), Lead institution Dr Amelia Kivaisi Dr Anthony Mshandete Dr Oscar Kibazohi Dr N. Mwaluko PI Sisal postharvest wastes Pwani University College (PUC) Dr Suhaila Hashim Dr Juma Mzee Amana Sisal decortications waste Addis Ababa University .(AAU) Dr Berhanu Assefa Dr Dawit Abate Coffee processing waste Brendenbergy Univ. of Tech. Prof. Eng. Gunter Busch Technological support-coffee waste Danish Tech. Univ. Prof. Irini Angelidaki Technological support-sisal waste
    • 20. Implementing Consortium END Product Delivery Partners Industry Responsible Roles Mohamed Enterprises Tanzania Limited (Sisal Plantations) Dr S. Subbaih/ Mr L.N. Nnyari Technology demonstration on site a factory in Tanzania Coffee Plantations Development Enterprise, Ethiopia Mr Baye Mokennen Technological demonstration on site a factory in Ethiopia Kilifi Plantations Kenya Eng. Patrick Kagema Technological demonstration on site the factory in Kenya
    • 21. THANK YOU FOR LISTENING