Gender in value chain: ILRI/IPMS experience in Ethiopia

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Presented by Ephrem Tesema at the Multi-Stakeholder’s Symposium on Empowering Women in Value Chains, Beshale Hotel, Addis Ababa, 15 March 2012.

Presented by Ephrem Tesema at the Multi-Stakeholder’s Symposium on Empowering Women in Value Chains, Beshale Hotel, Addis Ababa, 15 March 2012.

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  • 1. Gender in Value Chain: ILRI/IPMS Experience in Ethiopia Ephrem TesemaMulti-Stakeholder’s Symposium on Empowering Women in Value Chains Beshale Hotel, Addis Ababa, 15 March 2012
  • 2. Outline Background Objective Target PLW Objective of Gender Analysis Methods & Processes Findings & Learning Conclusion
  • 3. Background to ILRI/IPMS Project Market Oriented Agricultural Productivity (Crop & Livestock) Gender Sensitive Approach Innovative Approach Targeted Smallholder men & women Farmers Commodity Based
  • 4. Objective of ILRI/IPMS Increased Productivity Ensured Market Success Capacity Building and Partnership
  • 5. Target PLW 10 PLW in 4 regions 4PAS/woreda 10-28 community members/PA 1/3-1/2 are women participants Separate discussions held with M&W 4 communities involved in the analysis
  • 6. Objective IPMS Gender Analysis To understand the role of men & women in rural communities: -Production -Marketing -Decision Making - Benefit Sharing
  • 7. Gender Objective Cont’d To identify potential barriers: -For men’s and women’s participation in market led development initiative To identify -The required action by the project -potential partners
  • 8. Methods and Processes M hd etM hd etM hd etM hd etM hd et T M e
  • 9. Focus of the Analysis Division of labor in commodity production Gender roles in marketing commodities Access, control and benefits of resources Control of income from the sale of commodities Decision making roles…
  • 10. Sharing & Dissemination Using various events Using various communication Mediums Publication -Working papers -Participatory toolkits -Training manuals -IEC Materials
  • 11. Findings/Learning (Gender in Rural Population) Gender Characteristics of Rural populations Women -Workload of rural women In Ethiopia -Most rural women work 10-12 hours/day -Vary b/n wet & dry season -Have little time for leisure or socializing -Major source of labor in agriculture
  • 12. Findings/Learning Cont’d -Engaged in diverse off-farm activities, -Influenced by the local farming systems -Resource endowments -Wealth in rich and middle wealth hhs -Half less time to participate in formal dev.
  • 13. Findings/Learning Cont’d -Sell fuel wood, sorghum/maize stalk -Engaged in cotton spinning or injera making for sell -Brewing and selling local alcohol Men -Work as casual laborer on farm and in the home of rich HHs
  • 14. Findings/Learning Cont’d -Men also undertake a wide range of off- farm activities influenced by wealth -Rich men involved in activities that require capital -Trading in agricultural product -Investing in processing equipments -Lending money -Poor HHs work as casual laborers -Migrate temporarily for work
  • 15. Findings/Learning Cont’d -In rain fed farming systems, men’s workload is lightest during the dry season compared to HHs with access to irrigated land FHH -15-35% average in Ethiopia -Belongs to poorer HH in most communities
  • 16. Findings/Learning Cont’d• -Few FHH in the rich or middle wealth categories -The challenges of FHHs are different from those MHHs -Often overlooked by development partners
  • 17. Findings/Learning Cont’dProduction (skill, input & Technology)Men -Dominate decisions HH /information -Higher access for technology/Skills -Higher control for productive assets -Dominate decision in Technology uptake
  • 18. Findings/Learning Cont’dWomen Lack of access for formal information sources Lack of access for skills training Lack of access for extensions services Less involved in uptake of improved T. But situations vary ( HH types, region etc.)
  • 19. Key Lessons from IPMS Couples Training Enforce gender balanced involvement in Trainings Taking skills to the village (FTC) Capacitate front line development agents Women’s involvement: - field day, visits, exhibitions etc. Linkage with GO,NGO and PS
  • 20. Key Lessons from IPMS Women Dominated commodities Men Dominated commodities Commodities done by both sexes Training Composition (%) Ways of Information Dissemination
  • 21. Findings/Learning Cont’d Market( men, women, poor, middle & rich) -Men from R & M HH sell major crops -Travel distant markets/secure better prices -Women & poor farmers accept prices at local markets -Same directly sell to consumers -Men in better off HH sell P. to P. traders & cooperatives
  • 22. Key Lesson from Marketing Market engagement differs for men & women (wealth & HH category) Women have little control over high value crops Of 13 crop commodities men controls income from 11crops Women controls & share income only from 2 crops
  • 23. Challenges Partnership Availability of Technology Partner staff mobility Gender balance in partner public org. Capital scarcity stands as a major barrier -women farmers - poor - tends to leave them out of the technology development process
  • 24. Conclusion While designing projects -Gender diagnostic analysis -women potentials not part of the problems It is also relevant to consider • -input preferences of women in the value chain analysis (market/home consumption) • -Mapping men and women roles • -Its relevance in gender in value chain
  • 25. Conclusion• - Challenges of men/women in technology uptake• -Challenges in accessing financial and other productive resources• -Mapping institutions along the value chain and its gender aspect
  • 26. ConclusionEmphasis: It is required to conduct site and commodity specific analysis to understand gender roles and relations in livestock and crop value chain: Diagnostic…Gender in V C.
  • 27. Thanks W/ro Elfinesh Bermeji, a successful women farmer sharing her experience on beekeeping for AGP-gender Trainees, from Tigrai, Amhara, Oromiya and SNNP Regional State,Denkaka PA, Adaa IPMS Pilot Learning Woreda, Oromia,Photo by Ephrem Tesema,Nov.18,2011.