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Investing in water to support livestock sector growth in sub-Saharan Africa

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A presentation prepared by D. Peden, A. Freeman, A. Astatke, A. Notenbaert, D. Sheikh, and A. Workalemahu for the session on Investing in Africa’s Water Future, World Water Week in Stockholm, August …

A presentation prepared by D. Peden, A. Freeman, A. Astatke, A. Notenbaert, D. Sheikh, and A. Workalemahu for the session on Investing in Africa’s Water Future, World Water Week in Stockholm, August 20, 2004

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  • 1. Investing in water to support livestock sector growth in sub-Saharan Africa Prepared by D. Peden, A. Freeman, A. Astatke, A. Notenbaert, D. Sheikh, and A. Workalemahu International Livestock Research Institute For the session on Investing in Africa’s Water Future (20 August 2004) 2004 World Water Week in Stockholm
  • 2. Investing in water to support livestock sector growth in sub-Saharan Africa World Water Week BBC – 16 August 2004 - Stockholm A widely held view: “… growth in demand for meat and dairy products is unsustainable”
  • 3. Investing in water to support livestock sector growth in sub-Saharan Africa But, evidence suggests: • Investing in water for livestock in Sub-Saharan Africa may be one of the most effective options to help: – Reduce poverty – Overcome vulnerability of the poor. – Increase water productivity. • Increasing production of annual crops, not grazing, is the leading cause of soil loss and siltation in SSA. • Effort to increase water productivity of livestock has been neglected.
  • 4. Outline • Reasons to invest in water for livestock. • Livestock water productivity framework. • Where to invest in water for livestock. • Investment options for two example water development domains. • Some general lessons learned.
  • 5. Reasons to invest in water for livestock • Help achieve MDGs (2015): – 50% cut in poverty – 50% cut in hunger. • Safeguard assets: livestock ownership is a key indicator of poverty. • Enable child nutrition for physical & mental growth. • Enable access to expanding urban markets for high value animal products. • Protect water resources through better animal husbandry. • Support animal power: an alternative to petroleum. • Increase water productivity.
  • 6. Reasons to invest in water for livestock Trends to 2025 Meat & Milk consumption in SSA expected to increase Country group Annual growth (%) Per capita consumption (Kg/person) Meat Developed 0.6 83 Developing 2.8 30 SSA 3.5 11 Milk Developed 0.2 189 Developing 3.3 62 SSA 3.8 30 Source: Delgado et al., 1999 The “Hungry” world will still eat less meat! •Ethics •Demand •Distribution
  • 7. Discharge/flood Export Plant production Animal production Ground AVAILABLEWATER DRINK Ground & soil water recharge Rain Surface In flow Evaporation Degradation Trees Pasture/range Food crops Feed Imported feed Grazing & watering Feed Sourcing Framework for improving water productivity of livestock Livestock play multiple roles that affect water productivity
  • 8. Where to invest in water for livestock Toward Water Development Domains (WDD): • Relatively homogenous bio-physical and socio- economic conditions having similar opportunities for interventions and investments. • Combines human density, predicted market access, livestock (agricultural) production systems, and availability of discretionary water. • A broad-brush approach ultimately requiring bottom-up involvement of local people and institutions.
  • 9. Where to invest in water for livestock? 24 Suggested water Development Domains Ag. Production systems Available Discretionary water Market access Human pop. density 3 22 2
  • 10. • Eliminate 8 trivial units • Add towns & cities 24 Water development domains Where to invest in water for livestock? 17
  • 11. Water development domain: Example 1 • Mixed crop-livestock • High pop. density • Good market access • Low availability of Discretionary water
  • 12. Mixed crop-livestock High pop. Density Good market access Discretionary water low SSA: No. of countries 40 Area (km2 millions) 1.4 Population 2002 (millions) 221 Population 2030 (millions) 381 TLUs (millions) 37 Nigeria Rwanda Kenya Uganda Burundi Ethiopia Example Water Development Domain (Small area, but many users compete for water)
  • 13. Example Water Development Domain Mixed crop-livestock High pop. Density Good market access Discretionary water low Ethiopia Ethiopian part of domain: Area (km2 millions) 0.13 Population 2002 (millions) 21.4 Population 2030 (millions) 43.3 TLUs (millions) 6.4
  • 14. Example Water Development Domain Mixed crop-livestock High pop. Density Good market access Discretionary water low Ethiopia Annual cropping – the primary source of soil loss in Ethiopia Area (%) Soil loss (%) Annual cropland 13 45 Grazing land 51 21 Annual cropping, not overgrazing, is the major source of siltation, excessive flooding and soil loss Source: Hurni, 1989
  • 15. • Main pathways out of poverty: • Securing assets, production, income WDD: Crop-livestock, High pop. density, Good market, Little H20 • Some key Issues: • Extreme poverty & hunger • Access to quality water & feed • Drought & vulnerability • Siltation of reservoirs • Inefficient use of water • Water borne diseases
  • 16. WDD: Crop-livestock, High pop. density, Good market, Little H20 Priority water investment options: • Example technologies: – Including drinking troughs in existing and planned dams, ponds & diversions. – Design water harvesting with feed production options by using catchment production and food-feed crops. – Piped water for smallholder dairying. • Institutions: – Support for Community-based IWRM – Water institutions could partner with livestock and other sectors in planning water infra-structure development.
  • 17. Complementary non-water investment options: • Example technologies: – Conservation tillage – Zero-grazing – Control of helminthes (fasciola) & snails • Institutions: – Support for Community-based NRM – Marketing mechanisms (eg., Dairy coops) WDD: Crop-livestock, High pop. density, Good market, Little H20
  • 18. WDD: Crop-livestock, High pop. density, Good market, Little H20 • Example policy options – Encourage collective and joint management of water and grazing resources. – Development institutions accept legitimacy of the “livestock production option”. – Water pricing & demand management – Zoning for animal keeping. – Market development
  • 19. Example impacts: • Smallholder milk production in Kenya: – Piped water enabled 60% increase productivity per cow. • Conservation tillage in SSA: – reduced use of oxen could reduce water used for feed by 20 billion m3 /yr assuming 50% comes from residue. WDD: Crop-livestock, High pop. density, Good market, Little H20
  • 20. • Increased water productivity by feeding crop residue to animals because no extra water is used. WDD: Crop-livestock, High pop. density, Good market, Little H20 Teff for feed Feed source H2O depleted (m3 /TLU/year) Crop residue only 0 Forage crops only 450 • But, protect soil by returning some residue and manure.
  • 21. Water development domain: Example 2 - Briefly • Livestock dominant & few or no crops • Low pop. density • Poor market access • Low availability of Discretionary water
  • 22. Water development domain: Example 2 Primarily Grazing Low pop. Density Poor market access Little discretionary water No. of countries 44 Area (km2 millions) 5 Population 2002 (millions) 32 Population 2030 (millions) 63 TLUs (millions) 37 Main pathway out of poverty: • Securing assets • Reducing vulnerability
  • 23. WDD: Grazing, Low pop. density, Poor market, Little H20 • Good years: cattle increase up to 90/HH. • Drought years: about half die. • Most kept for wealth and drought insurance. • Only 18/HH needed for food and income. • Limiting herd size to 18/HH could: – save one billion m3 year (1000 micro-dams) – save feed to support animals in dry years. • Rainwater “saved” can help restore biodiversity, sequester carbon & provide ecosystem services. • Policy and institutions needed. Borana Plateau Ethiopia 90,000 km2 325,000 people 1,000,000 cattle Example demand management option:
  • 24. Some lessons learned • Opportunities lost because of lack of integration of livestock into water planning and development. • Investing in water for livestock may be an effective option to help reduce poverty and overcome vulnerability of the poor. • Needs: – Multi-sectoral & multi-regional approach. – Balanced mix of supply & demand management. – Effective use of existing technology and knowledge. – Effective inclusion of communities and all stakeholders. – Gender and ethnic equity. • This does not mean simply increasing meat consumption to the level of “western diets”. • Significant increases in water productivity possible. • Investments in livestock largely complementary.
  • 25. Thank you

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