Innovation systems and value chain approaches: From principles to practice


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Presented by Ranjitha Puskur, January 2010

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  • Traditional research model – research provides technology to farmer (2) But really much more complex – for adoption, need to ensure there is ‘pull’ with market outlet/demand (3) And the value chain complex of actors/functions required to get the product to the market (4) But also need to ensure there is ‘push’ to support the farmer’s sustained use of the technology through access to a range of inputs and services, and hence need to develop appropriate input value chains (5) Plus sustainable access to knowledge, market into, organizational strategies (6) So much more complex web of actors – and ALL are important – if one is missing, it can threaten uptake and sustainability of system  Need to get everyone interacting
  • Managing the process means not to control, but to facilitate, mostly by creating favorable conditions for innovation to occur Innovation not merely accidental outcome of uncontrolled and uncontrollable series of events – but “change-on-purpose”, propelled by individual and collective intentions
  • Innovation systems and value chain approaches: From principles to practice

    1. 1. Innovation Systems + Value chain approaches : From Principles to Practice Ranjitha Puskur International Livestock Research Institute January 2010
    2. 2. Overview of the presentation <ul><li>Innovation, Innovation Systems and Value Chains </li></ul><ul><li>Building innovation platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Gender integration </li></ul><ul><li>Learning alliances </li></ul><ul><li>Scaling up and out </li></ul>
    3. 3. Why a new research approach? <ul><li>Dissatisfaction with linear technology transfer model for agricultural development and it’s effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>News ways of improving and integrating the actions of all stakeholders </li></ul>
    4. 4. Features of new approaches to research <ul><li>It is about change or “innovation” as an outcome, not just about information, knowledge or technology as a product </li></ul><ul><li>It places “research”, as one of the components contributing to the development process, rather than its pivotal point </li></ul><ul><li>It focuses on processes and performance rather than just products (technologies, policies). Or, to put it another way, improved processes are the product. </li></ul>
    5. 5. What IS research is not.. <ul><li>not a fixed method, approach or specific process that can be applied as an alternative to “conventional” research and development </li></ul><ul><li>the conceptualisation and practice needs to go beyond methods or approaches to include changes of personal skills, mindsets and attitudes, organisational practices and culture, and the ways in which organisations interact as part of the wider “innovation system” </li></ul>
    6. 6. Defining principles <ul><li>integrates the perspectives, knowledge and actions of different stakeholders around a common theme. </li></ul><ul><li>integrates the learning by stakeholders from working together. </li></ul><ul><li>integrates analysis, action and change across the different (environmental, social, economic) “dimensions” of development. </li></ul><ul><li>integrates analysis, action and change at different levels of spatial, economic and social organisation. </li></ul>
    7. 8. Why is innovation important? Globalisation (knowledge networks, markets) Institutions (local, national, regional, global) Markets (consumption, supermarkets, integration) Policy (decentralisation, privatisation) <ul><ul><li>Population pressure Climate change </li></ul></ul>Emerging infectious diseases Intensification Evolving challenges and opportunities Huge implications for poor and women
    8. 9. What is innovation? <ul><li>“ Process by which knowledge is created, diffused, accessed, adapted, and, most critically, put into use, in economically and socially significant ways”. </li></ul><ul><li>Technological </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional (way things are routinely done) </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational </li></ul><ul><li>Policy </li></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>If we always do </li></ul><ul><li>What we always did, </li></ul><ul><li>We will always get </li></ul><ul><li>What we always got!!! </li></ul>
    10. 11. Innovation <ul><li>Innovation is a social process involving many different actors </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation processes can be enhanced by creating more possibilities for actors to interact – innovation platforms </li></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>Innovations are the result of learning emerging from right networks of actors working together in certain ways.. </li></ul><ul><li>These certain ways are rules and norms or routines – called institutional arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis is on getting the right actors together ( key actors along the value chain ) and getting them to work in certain way </li></ul>Simply speaking ..
    12. 13. Why do we need to pay attention to innovation as a process? Farmer adopting integrated system Research Technology Bulker Packager Dairy Value Chain ‘ PULL’ Trader Retail markets Supermarkets Restaurants Processor Veg Value Chain Veterinary Value Chain Genetics Value Chain Feed Value Chain Knowledge Market Information Irrigation Value Chain Seed Value Chain Organisational ‘ PUSH’ How do we get all of these actors working together to identify problems and co-create solutions as the value chains evolve?
    13. 14. Building innovation platforms <ul><li>Landscaping to identify key actors along the value chain </li></ul><ul><li>Understand their habits and practices; incentives and motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Joint action </li></ul><ul><li>M&L for course correction and lesson learning </li></ul>
    14. 15. Innovation platforms <ul><li>facilitate dialogue between the main local players in the value chain: farmers, input suppliers, traders, transporters, processors, wholesalers, retailers, regulators, and the R&D community </li></ul><ul><li>identify bottlenecks and opportunities in production, marketing and the policy environment </li></ul><ul><li>identify market requirements (quantity, quality, and the timing of sales) </li></ul><ul><li>analyse existing production strategies </li></ul><ul><li>identify and implement technologies to improve production to fulfill market demand </li></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><li>a fluid entity - evolving membership, drawing in relevant expertise depending on the problem being addressed </li></ul><ul><li>helps provide access to credible information and improving information flow </li></ul><ul><li>help choose the most feasible solutions to be tested and implemented </li></ul><ul><li>generate site-specific solutions to align production with market requirements, which will ensure better prices for smallholder producers. </li></ul>Innovation platforms
    16. 17. Major elements of the approach Knowledge-based, capacitated and responsive system with linked actors
    17. 18. Integrating gender concerns <ul><li>Analyze gender roles in the value chains - identify entry points/niches along the chains for their involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze their knowledge/capacity needs, sources, access to technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Plan activities, set targets, </li></ul><ul><li>create enabling conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity building of intermediaries </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor! </li></ul>
    18. 19. Livestock system context -Biophysical -Technical -Social -Economic -Political - Institutional System diagnosis Drivers/Factors -Preferences -Policy and institutions -Knowledge -Culture -Risk and vulnerability –Infrastructure Environment - Technology Current state of a agricultural issue Current actors, alignment and practices
    19. 20. Pilot testing of interventions <ul><li>Design of interventions </li></ul><ul><li>-Capacity building of actors </li></ul><ul><li>-Enrolment and alignment of actors </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Technical options </li></ul>Baseline Context Drivers Actors Linkages Changes -Actors- Institutions -Alignment -Organizations -Practices -Policy M&E and Learning Lessons and principles
    20. 21. Action Learning <ul><li>A process in which a group of people come together more or less regularly to help each other to learn from their experience. </li></ul><ul><li>The experience can be something which is taking place, or more often is set up for the occasion.  </li></ul><ul><li>It is cyclic, involves action and reflection on that action.  </li></ul><ul><li>Intended to improve practice.  </li></ul>
    21. 23. How do you facilitate learning? <ul><li>Periodic meetings and workshops with stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Joint action planning, implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure visits </li></ul><ul><li>Learning alliances </li></ul><ul><li>Platforms </li></ul>
    22. 24. Learning alliances Other Districts Local level Regional National Sites within district Non-project sites within district Learning Scaling out Chair Chair
    23. 25. Roles of the alliances <ul><li>Advisory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate participatory planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate scaling up innovations (technical, institutional and organisational) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate ownership/institutionalisation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M&E </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>of process and outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>of project and alliance activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific learning events </li></ul></ul>
    24. 26. What needs to be scaled up/out? <ul><li>Principles and methods of stimulating local innovation processes </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons from experience in supporting institutional change </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons in building multi-stakeholder partnerships to create enabling conditions for local innovation processes </li></ul>
    25. 27. Key questions to steps in scaling out process <ul><li>What factors can be identified as critical for making sustainable an innovation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-economic-cultural embedding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How to identify end-users, actors and parties directly or indirectly affected by the introduction of innovation? </li></ul>
    26. 28. Key questions to steps in scaling out process <ul><li>How can different actors be involved in the innovation process ? </li></ul><ul><li>At which stage and to what extent they may influence the change ? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the best level of participation ? </li></ul>
    27. 29. What is required.. <ul><li>A tool for the analysis , planning and implementation of sustainable actions </li></ul><ul><li>A technique that makes use of participatory methods </li></ul><ul><li>A systematic approach for dialogue and co-operation between groups of local actors </li></ul><ul><li>A simple and effective way to handle risks and opportunities of stakeholders’ demand and builds relationships with them </li></ul>
    28. 30. ILRI is creating and integrating knowledge to enable diverse partners to find innovative solutions to make livestock a sustainable pathway out of poverty