Innovation platforms in the aquaculture value chain in Egypt

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Presented by Malcolm Dickson at the National Aquaculture Innovation Platform Workshop, Cairo, 19-20 February 2014


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Innovation platforms in the aquaculture value chain in Egypt

  1. 1. Innovation Platforms in the Aquaculture Value Chain in Egypt Malcolm Dickson National Aquaculture Innovation Platform Workshop, Cairo, 19-20 February 2014
  2. 2. CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish • Collaboration between CGIAR centers (CIAT, ICARDA, WorldFish, ILRI) • Within selected value chains across Africa, South and Southeast Asia and Latin America • To foster growth and inclusivity of livestock and fish value chains around the world • To achieve more meat, milk and fish, by and for the poor at scale Impact Pathways are linked to the Post 2015 Development Agenda and Sustainable Development Goals including global food supply, food and nutrition security, job creation, and linking small-scale actors to largescale enterprise. Expected outcomes are linked specifically to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 1, 2, 5, 8 and 9 See: http://livestockfish.cgiar.org/ and see http://www.ilri.org/home
  3. 3. CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish Why Livestock and Fish? • Animal-source foods provide critical inputs to the health of women and children • Nearly 1 billion (70%) of the world’s 1.4 billion extremely poor people depend on livestock; two-thirds of the world’s livestock keepers are rural women • 400 million people in Africa and South Asia depend on fish for most of their animal protein • 156 million landless people keep livestock What are the program’s expected outcomes? • Dairy and pigs: double productivity and incomes in target value chains • Aquaculture: increase fish consumption by 20% in target value chains • Goats and sheep: increase productivity to double incomes in target value chains
  4. 4. Improving Employment and Income through Development of Egypt’s Aquaculture Sector (IEIDEAS) Project duration: Dec 2011 – Dec 2014 Funded by Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SDC and implemented in collaboration with CARE Geographical coverage: 5 governorates (Behera, El-Minya, Fayoum, Kafr El-Sheikh and Sharkia) Main activities: • Capacity Development of Best Management Practice guidelines & delivery of BMP trainings • Dissemination of ‘Abbassa strain’ genetically improved tilapia • Support for women retailers (managed by CARE) • Expansion of aquaculture in Upper Egypt (managed by CARE) • Improving the policy environment for aquaculture
  5. 5. The aquaculture value chain in Egypt • Provides significant benefits for Egypt: – Economic activity ($ 1.5 billion) – Employment (100,000+ FTE) – Food security (one fish per person per week) – Opportunities for sustainable and equitable growth, including for women – Continued expansion possible if profitability is maintained • Farmed fish has a relatively ‘short’ value chain: hatcheries  fish farms  wholesalers  retailers & restaurants • Presently limited processing or exports of farmed fish • Many input suppliers: feed mills, equipment sellers, ice suppliers
  6. 6. Why multi-stakeholder interactions ? • Multi-stakeholder interaction, including public-private partnerships are crucial means to address complex problems • They bring together different types of stakeholders with shared problems but often diverging interests • Innovation platforms are an example of such dynamic stakeholderdriven mechanisms
  7. 7. Process of innovation platform establishment • National-level launch meeting, 12 Jan 2014, Cairo • Preparatory meetings at the governorate level, Jan-Feb 2014 1 meeting in El-Sharkia, El-Behera and El-Fayoum each 2 meetings in Kafr El-Sheikh to se: – identify and prioritize challenges and opportunities in the aquaculture value chain for each governorate by broad range of stakeholders – identify representatives for national level meeting • National level innovation platform meeting, 19-20 Feb 2014, Cairo to kick start the process with over 50 public and private partners
  8. 8. This workshop Participants: • 16 Farmers • 6 Hatchers • 2 Retailers / wholesalers • 6 Input suppliers • 7 Authorities • 20 Researchers, consultants, experts, academics • 7 Others including NGOs, donors, facilitators Process: • Sharing and discussion about issues from the governorate-level meetings • Prioritization of issues (through voting) • Analyses of the top 10 priority issues in mixed stakeholder groups • Stakeholder groups identify their potential actions • Establishing working groups based on interest • Action planning in mixed groups and establishing a process for the way forward
  9. 9. Ten (10) key issues prioritized and discussed Issues Votes Insufficient water & limited rights for fish farmers to use water 23 Diseases / poor fish health 17 High production costs (feed, fuel, land) 15 Lack of options to own land for aquaculture 13 Poor water quality 12 Farmers are not well represented in decision making 11 Lack of well-equipped fish markets / formal selling space 6 Government perceive/treat fish farmers as a problem-makers 6 Difficulties to obtain farm licenses 5 Poor feed quality 4 Disclaimer: Views and priorities of retailers /Communities/Policymakers may be underrepresented
  10. 10. Other issues highlighted Issues Lack of adequate technical expertise and knowledge among farmers Limited access to export market Lack of coordination between institutes (research / policy / taxes) Research, extension and training do not address sector problems No insurance schemes for staff (poor labour conditions) No continuous supply Monopoly of few traders/importers for fish marketing Bad reputation of farmed fish among consumers affecting marketing Land policies restrict expansion of aquaculture Limited access to financial services (credit / insurance) Poor infrastructure in some areas (roads, electricity and water) Retailers pay high fees to sell in markets
  11. 11. 1. Insufficient water & limited rights for fish farmers to use water Implications: • Low performance of fish (growth, survival, productivity) Causes: • Expansion of agricultural area • Increasing population (higher demand for water for different uses) • Poor infrastructure for irrigation and drainage Stakeholders that need to be part of the solution • Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, MoALR, GAFRD, Ministry of Environment affairs, Aquatic union (to represent the sector)
  12. 12. 1. Insufficient water & limited rights for fish farmers to use water Solutions: • Promote improved legislation for equitable distribution of water quotas for fish farmers by showing the importance of fish for food • Use of alternative water resources; underground water, brackish water and water recycled systems in fish farms • Integrations between agriculture and aquaculture to maximize water use • Mapping the available land with water resources to be used for aquaculture • Modify agricultural drainage canals to supply water to fish farms • More intensive fish farming • Establish a “board” or “council” to create more attention the problem.
  13. 13. 2. Poor water quality Implications: • Declining fish production • Increased production costs • Disease outbreaks • Negative impact on the environment • Negative impact on farm laborers health • Reduction of chances to export fish Causes: • Industrial and municipal water is not treated before discharge • Environmental laws are not enforced • Farmers do not apply BMPs • Farmers use low quality fish feed
  14. 14. 2. Poor water quality Stakeholders that need to be part of the solution: • Min. Environment, fish farmers, research organization, local governorates Solutions: • Water treatment of industrial and household water before using it for aquaculture: – Use biotechnology for water treatment – Using wetland for water treatment – Using water treatment at farm level • Using aeration equipment at farms to reduce need for water exchange • Improve farm management practices
  15. 15. 3. Fish diseases / poor fish health Implications: • Not possible to expand/ continue aquaculture business • Could lead to appearance of highly virulent diseases and spread of disease throughout the country • Could affect quality of fish in the market • Low fish supply in the market, leads to high consumer price Causes: • Low water quality • Use of drainage water from agriculture with pesticides • Inappropriate farm management practices due to lack of expertise among farmers • Lack of fish disease specialists in the farming areas • No linkage between the farmers and research institutes / universities
  16. 16. 3. Fish diseases / poor fish health Stakeholders that need to be part of the solution: • MoALR, GAFRD, farmers, research institutes and universities, NGOs Solutions: • Establishing a committee to survey fish health in the country (private sector and research institutes) • Organize a conference to present results of this survey and develop a plan to address issues identified Potential ideas: • Develop new policies on water use • Governmental monitoring and control of fish disease • Establishment of a specialized lab on fish diseases near farms areas • Training of farmers on best management practices
  17. 17. 4. High production costs (feed, fuel, land) Implications: • Low return on investment • Farmers have low income and standard of living • Feed mills have low production cessation of business • High rate of unemployment • Consumers pay high prices for animal-source proteins • Low production may lead to more demand for imports Causes: • High feed prices • High prices for power and fuel • High rental price of land • High costs for labour due to Lack of trained work force (lack of labour efficiency) • Security risk
  18. 18. 4. High production costs (feed, fuel, land) Stakeholders that need to be part of the solution • Farmers, hatchers, feed millers, research agencies, MoALR Solutions: • Establish an umbrella association for fish farmers, hatchers and feed millers • Form a union of feed ingredient importers • Lobby with main Ministries involved for better energy quotas for fish farmers • Develop governmental feed mills • Conduct research on alternative feeds • Grow raw materials (crops) locally in Egypt • Produce crops during cessation of aquaculture activity
  19. 19. 5. Limited possibility to own land for aquaculture Implications: • Limited incentive for investment leads to reduced fish production • Increasing fish prices • Farmers may stop paying land fees to GAFRD • High rate of unemployment Causes: • Erosion of the role of the GAFRD as supporters of fish farmers • Different standards towards different beneficiaries • Lack of consistency in rental periods (from 3 – 25 years)
  20. 20. 5. Limited possibility to own land for aquaculture Stakeholders that need to be part of the solution: • GAFRD, MoALR, farmers Solutions: • Present the case for improved land ownership policies in the Aquatic Union • Develop an advocacy campaign to show the importance of aquaculture at the national level
  21. 21. 6. Farmers are not well represented in decision making processes Implications: • Farmers not represented in setting policies, therefore policies do not reflect farmers’ perception of the situation and do not provide benefits to farmers • As a result there are issues with policies related to land and water which lead to fish mortality • Farmers are not compensated in case of fish mortality and disease Causes: • Limited good examples of successful collective action • Limited financial and managerial resources for producer organizations
  22. 22. 6. Farmers are not well represented in decision making processes Stakeholders that need to be part of the solution: • MoALR, Aquatic Union, GAFRD, Fish farmers and other VC actors Solutions: • Strengthen existing fish farming organizations • Strengthen Aquatic Union to also represent fish farmers • Encourage fish farmers to participate in these organizations by showing them the benefits
  23. 23. 7. Lack of well-equipped fish markets / formal selling space for small retailers Implications: • Low profit margins for fish retailers, detrimental to livelihoods • Bad working conditions for retailers • High consumer price of fish due to high costs for retailers • Low fish quality in the market Causes: • High fines imposed by government for selling where it is not allowed • Monopoly in the market of large players • High price of shops / market space • Absence of a legal entity representing fish retailers • Lack of interest by government for fish retailers
  24. 24. 7. Lack of well-equipped fish markets / formal selling space for small retailers Stakeholders that need to be part of the solution: • Government (governorate-level), NGOs, Fish retailers, private sector Solutions: • Replicate the success story of Shakshouk (where a shaded marketplace was established) • Establish a union of fish retailers that can help to push for establishment of small markets in villages
  25. 25. 8. Government perceive/treat fish farmers as problem-makers Implications: • Exposure to the risks of trial and imprisonment or fines • Pursuits of a lawsuit because of the practice of fish farming • Negative vision of society/governorates to fish farmers • Negative psychological impact on producers and their families Causes: • Negative media coverage • Research institutions do not address the real problems of the sector
  26. 26. 8. Government perceive/treat fish farmers as problem-makers Stakeholders that need to be part of the solution: • Media, Ministry of water resources and irrigation, MoALR, GAFRD, Ministry of Environment affairs, Research institutes, universities Solutions: • Organize a large conference bringing together national and local-level authorities and fish farmers to update current policies
  27. 27. 9. Poor feed quality Feed is not homogenous, unbalanced and has low digestability Implications: • Deteriorated water quality and properties • Low growth rate and lower production volumes of fish • High costs of production • Consumers pay high prices for lower quality fish • Increased occurrence of fish disease Causes: • Raw materials of feeds are not homogeneous • Feed composition is imbalanced (feed formula not ideal) • High price of raw materials • Poor storage conditions of raw material • Poor processing
  28. 28. 9. Poor feed quality Stakeholders that need to be part of the solution • Central laboratories • Quality control assurance system • Regulatory agencies • Feeds industry Solutions: • Upgrade public sector mills • Use of modern production systems for feed production • Researchers and feed mills to work together to imrpove feed quality (e.g. feed analysis) • Enforce laws on feed quality consistently across the country
  29. 29. 10. Difficulties to obtain farm licenses (not further discussed) Implications: • No expansion of number of fish farms • Reduction in fish production volumes Causes: • Fish farms face difficulties in license renewal due to suspension of licenses by the Ministry of Irrigation • Difficulty to obtain licenses for ‘new’ aquaculture areas due to the many different authorities involved • Classification of land for agriculture unsuitable for it Stakeholders that need to be part of the solution: • Ministry of irrigation, MoALR
  30. 30. Way forward • Working groups have been established based on prioritized issues • Issues that are not addressed (yet) or new issues that emerge can be taken up in a similar way in the future based on stakeholders’ interests • The working groups comprise of representatives from different stakeholders groups, those that feel commitment and are available to jointly start addressing the issue • Initial steps in the next few months will include: – further development of an action plan – engagement with those that were not at the workshop but need to be part of the solution • The groups will be facilitated by the IEIDEAS project in terms of logistics, facilitation, and capacity development, as well as coordination between the working groups
  31. 31. CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish livestockfish.cgiar.org CGIAR is a global partnership that unites organizations engaged in research for a food secure future. The CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish aims to increase the productivity of small-scale livestock and fish systems in sustainable ways, making meat, milk and fish more available and affordable across the developing world.

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