Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
ILRI-BMZ Project on Improving the Livelihoods of Poor Livestock-keepers in Africa through Community-Based Management of Indigenous Farm Animal Genetic Resources: Country report Ethiopia: Oct 2004-Sept 2005
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

ILRI-BMZ Project on Improving the Livelihoods of Poor Livestock-keepers in Africa through Community-Based Management of Indigenous Farm Animal Genetic Resources: Country report Ethiopia: Oct 2004-Sept 2005

650

Published on

Presented by Lemma Gizachew at the Second Annual Review and Planning Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 13-17 September 2005. …

Presented by Lemma Gizachew at the Second Annual Review and Planning Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 13-17 September 2005.

ILRI-BMZ Project on 'Improving the Livelihoods of Poor Livestock-keepers in Africa through Community-Based Management of Indigenous Farm Animal Genetic Resources'

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
650
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. ILRI-BMZ project country report/Ethiopia: Oct 2004-Sept 2005 Lemma Gizachew Second Annual Review and Planning Workshop Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 13-17 September 2005
  • 2. Project team members
    • Lemma Gizachew (NPO)
    • Ulfina Gelmessa (SNR)
    • Zelalem Belayneh
    • Jiregna Desalegn
    • Gemechu Shale
    • Temesgen Ayana
    • Temesgen Jembere
    • Diriba Geleti
    • Chala Merera
    • Gemeda Duguma
    • Mulugeta K ebede
  • 3. I. AnGR: Country context
  • 4. Animal/plant genetic resources of Ethiopia
    • AnGR is vital biodiversity component
    • Center of origin/diversity for a number plant & animal (breeds) species
    • 6400 plant species (1000 spp. indigenous)
    • At least 2 8 Trifolium spp. (9 endemic)
    • 24 cattle breed (type)
    • 13 goat
    • 7 sheep
    • 10 chicken
  • 5. Contributing factors for richness in biodiversity
    • Diverse ecological niches (32 AEZs) or habitats
    • Varying breeding goals & priorities of farmers/pastoralists
  • 6. Is this country benefiting from this rich AnGR? No
  • 7. Why ?
    • Attitudinal problem (mind set up)
    • Low R and D attention on indigenous AnGR
    • Inadequate institutional & policy support
  • 8. Outstanding threats to indigenous AnGR
    • Breed replacement , crossbreeding , interbreeding
    • Habitat loss (emergence of private farms , crop/bush encroachment , range degradation)
    • Disease epidemics
    • Conflicts/raids
    • Drought/famine
  • 9. What does the future hold for AnGR?
    • Appreciation of contribution: poverty reduction , improving livelihood & agric sustainability
    • Local & international attention shift for AnGR (country report on AnGR/ collaborations)
    • Emphases of regional/national research strategies
    • Interest in specific genetic merits of AnGR (hardiness , disease/parasite resistance)
    • Growing market demand (local & overseas)
  • 10. Three years ILRI-BMZ project outputs
    • Community & priority breed identification
    • Community based action research
    • Analyses of economic , market & policy factors
    • Capacity building & dissemination
  • 11. 2004/05 plan & accomplishment ? Livestock characterization  PRA survey/reporting back workshop  Community & priority breed identification ?  PIC  Development of livelihood indicators  Enumerator training  Collect/review secondary data Accomplishment Planned activities
  • 12. 2004/05 plan & accomplishment cont’d ? Survey instrument design & sample selection Accomplishment Planned act i v i t i es  Workshops  Capacity building ( PRA , farmer field school , graduate fellowships) ? Collection and analysis of market secondary data ? Community-based interventions
  • 13. II. Community & priority breed identification
  • 14. Community & priority breed identification
    • Consultation worship (relevant stakeholders)
    • Group discussion at community level
    • Output: Three PAs (Gida-Abu , Dano-Shenen & Sayo-Gambela) and cattle (Horro breed)
  • 15. III. Capacity building
  • 16. Capacity building
    • PRA for research team
    • Farmers field school training for trainers
    • Breed characterization from prod n systems context
    • PhD student placement/coursework ( Göttingen)
    • Placing graduate students on project outputs related activities
    • Enumerator training
    • Farmers training (forage production/health)
  • 17. IV. Literature review on Horro cattle
  • 18. Collection & compilation of information
    • Publications in center and national libraries consulted
    • Report compiled through desk review
  • 19. Origin & distribution
    • Name derived from sub province Horro Guduru
    • Distributed through Wellega , Illubabor , Kefa & W.Shoa
  • 20. Breed characteristics
    • Intermediate Sanga (medium to large)
    • Small & finely shaped head
    • Medium to large horn
    • Fine skin , uniform brown color
    • Thin dewlap
    • Straight & slender leg
    • Small udder
  • 21. Productive performance
    • Milk yield of pure Horro: 0.4-6 l/day
    • Lactation length: 4-12 months
    • Milk yield of Horro crosses (25-50% exotic blood):
    • 8 00-1400 l/lactation
    • Milk chemical composition (6.4% fat & 3.9 % protein)
    • Birth weight:1 8 .6 ± 0.2 kg
    • Weaning weight:192.4 ± 6 kg
    • Calf management (suckling)
    • Growth & finishing (concentrate/crop- residue/ forage)
  • 22. Reproductive performance
    • Age at 1 st mating (heifer): 2.73-4.30 years
    • Age at 1 st calving: 3.5-5.0 years
    • Weight at 1 st heat:214 ± 7 kg
    • Weight at 1 st conception:215 ± 8 kg
    • Gestation length: 2 8 0.7- 2 8 2.2 days
    • NSC: natural - 1.4; AI - 1.75
    • Calving interval: 14.5-24.0 months
  • 23. Gaps
    • Characterization work incomplete
    • No emphases on improvement thru selection
    • Mechanism to regulate uncontrolled cross-breeding/ interbreeding
    • Absence of community based AnGR management
    • Limited work on consumer preferences , power output improvement , market & policy
    • Low level of end-users involvement/limited adoption of developed technologies
  • 24. V. Livestock production & marketing system appraisal (PRA)
  • 25. Major objectives
    • Adequately describe the project study sites
    • Identify the major roles livestock play in the lives of the farming communities
    • Identify constraints and possible interventions for improvement of livestock production & marketing systems
  • 26. Methodology
    • Participatory situation analyses
  • 27. Source of info
    • Secondary data (Agric Dev’t /PA offices)
    • Direct observation by multidisciplinary team
    • Key informant interview
  • 28. Data analyses
    • Use of PRA tools (triangulation , conceptualization , tabulation , etc)
  • 29. Findings
  • 30. Household size & structure
    • HH size:4-16
    • HH structure:Young> old
  • 31. Household wealth class  3 Poor 4-9 Medium >10 Rich Heads of cattle Wealth class
  • 32. Percent wealth class in selected PA/ implication? / 39 5 8 3 Seyo-Gambela 26 33 41 Dano-Shenen 6 25 67 Gida-Abu Rich Medium Poor PA
  • 33. Land use pattern from community resource map/ focus of feed intervention? / 5.67 6.7 64.3 23.5 Average 4 7 67 22 Sayo-Gambella 4 9 65 22 Danno-Shanan 9 4 61 26 Gida-Abu Waste Forest Crop Grazing PA
  • 34. Rainfall pattern
  • 35. HH food availability/ coping strategies? /
  • 36. Relative contribution of different livestock spp.
  • 37. Relative monetary return from livestock products
  • 38. HH expenditure / negligible for livestock /
  • 39. Sources of credit & relative importance 4 Arata 3 Idir 2 Neighbor 1 Relatives Relative importance Source
  • 40. Labor calendar / alternative use of labor at slack period? /
  • 41. Purpose of keeping livestock
    • Sources of incidental expense
    • Storage of food
    • Financial reserve during economic stress
    • Input to crop production
    • Wealth accumulation & security
    • Buffering against crop failure
  • 42. Preferred cattle traits
    • Coat color (disease/flies/ feeding response)
    • Body conformation
    • Body size (growth rate & prolificacy)
    • Naval flap & tail size
    • Size & orientation of horn
  • 43. Feed resources
    • Communal pasture
    • Crop residues
    • Browses
    • Supplements (salt)
  • 44. Seasonal availability of feeds
  • 45. Interventions to feed shortage problems
    • Conservation & proper utilization of feeds
    • Reducing herd size
    • Privatization of communal grazing
    • Paddocking & rotational grazing of NP
    • Use of shrubs & browses
    • Growing improved forages
  • 46. Animal health
    • Major diseases: Tryps , anthrax , black leg ,
    • Occurrence: seasonal
    • Most affected class: oxen/milking cows
  • 47. Livestock marketing
    • Species of preference: Chicken > Shoats > Cattle
    • Reason of sale:incidental expenses , school fee & credit repayment
    • Market channel:farmer ⇨ small traders/ butchers (1 ° market) ⇨ b i g traders (2 ° market) ⇨ b i g traders (3 ° market) ⇨ b i g traders (terminal market)
    • Market info: informal (physical presence/ neighbor
    • Price formation: Socio-cultural events , crop performance , season (oxen) , body feature (color) , brokers
    • Constraints: infrastructure , info , volume , capital , transport
  • 48. Problem ran ki ng (pa i r-wise) 3 Market 4 Credit 2 Disease 1 Feed Ran k Constraints
  • 49. V I . Community-based interventions
  • 50. Community-based interventions
    • Deciding livestock asset function requiring improvement
    • Delineating roles & responsibilities of the project and the communities
  • 51. Commodity of choice
    • In all three PAs: cattle fattening/ finishing
  • 52. Roles & responsibilities Advise type of animals to be fattened Training on feeding , healthcare etc Facilitate smooth marketing of animal Monitor operation Avail drugs on cost bases BMZ-project Avail animals for fattening Conserve feed Manage feeds & animals Bear input costs Communities Duties and responsible Role players
  • 53. Issues to consider for the success of the interventions
    • Allocating revolving fund (to benefit the poorest of the poor)
    • Enhance the capacity of the research system (resources)-for smooth take-off & sustain the effort
  • 54. Encountered constraints
    • Shortage of fund in some budget categories
    • Less flexible budget release mechanism
    • Absence of revolving fund (facilitate community based intervention)

×