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Integrating food safety and nutrition assessments in livestock and fish value chains
Integrating food safety and nutrition assessments in livestock and fish value chains
Integrating food safety and nutrition assessments in livestock and fish value chains
Integrating food safety and nutrition assessments in livestock and fish value chains
Integrating food safety and nutrition assessments in livestock and fish value chains
Integrating food safety and nutrition assessments in livestock and fish value chains
Integrating food safety and nutrition assessments in livestock and fish value chains
Integrating food safety and nutrition assessments in livestock and fish value chains
Integrating food safety and nutrition assessments in livestock and fish value chains
Integrating food safety and nutrition assessments in livestock and fish value chains
Integrating food safety and nutrition assessments in livestock and fish value chains
Integrating food safety and nutrition assessments in livestock and fish value chains
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Integrating food safety and nutrition assessments in livestock and fish value chains

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Presentation by Barbara Häsler, Kimberley Fornace, Delia Grace and Jonathan Rushton at the Leverhulme Centre for Integrative Research on Agriculture and Health (LCIRAH) conference, London, UK, 13-14 …

Presentation by Barbara Häsler, Kimberley Fornace, Delia Grace and Jonathan Rushton at the Leverhulme Centre for Integrative Research on Agriculture and Health (LCIRAH) conference, London, UK, 13-14 June 2013.

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  • 1. Integrating food safety and nutritionassessments in livestock and fishvalue chainsBarbara Häsler1, Kimberly Fornace2, Delia Grace3, Jonathan Rushton1Contact: bhaesler@rvc.ac.uk1 Royal Veterinary College and Leverhulme Centre for Integrative Research on Agricultureand Health, London2 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London3 International Livestock Research Institute, KenyaLCIRAHconference,13&14June2013,London
  • 2. IntroductionLivestock and fish sector in low and middle-income countries rapidly growingOpportunities for poverty alleviation andamelioration of ill health and nutritionIntensification may lead to increase in risk offoodborne diseaseClose link between disease and malnutrition,but assessments of food safety and nutritionoften disaggregated
  • 3. Why worry about zoonoticand foodborne disease inrelation to nutrition?HUMAN MORTALITY ANDMORBIDITY→ Malnutrition, decrease inproductionTHREATENEDLIVELIHOODS→ ReducedincomePRODUCTIONLOSSES/INEFFICIENTPRODUCTION→ Decrease inproductionFOOD SCARES→ ConsumptiondecreasesDISEASE CONTROL→ Culling of animals,production lossesFOOD SAFETYMEASURES→ Impact onnutrient availability
  • 4. Example SalmonellaEstimated 93,757,000 cases of gastroenteritisdue to non-typhoidal Salmonella per year1Estimated 155,000 human deaths due to non-typhoidal Salmonella per year1Estimated 86% of the cases are foodborne1Worldwide mass production and distribution offood disseminates pathogens rapidlyEU Salmonella control programme: ... Poultryslaughtered from ... To....1 Shannon E. Majowicz et al., 2010. The Global Burden of Nontyphoidal SalmonellaGastroenteritis, Clin Infect Dis. (2010) 50 (6): 882-889. doi: 10.1086/650733
  • 5. Aim and objectivesInternational Livestock Research Institute required atool for the rapid integrated assessment of foodsafety and nutrition to make recommendations forpro-poor research priorities in livestock and fishvalue chainsObjectives1. Develop integrated approaches for assessinglivestock and fish value chains in relation tonutrition and health2. Apply the approaches to value chains with highpotential for pro-poor transformation
  • 6. Land &waterGrowCropsSignalsREGULATORY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK: public and private rules and regulations, enforcement, etc.HarvestProcessRetailEatMoveMove MoveANIMAL WELFAREFOODBORNE HAZARDSProcessMoveMoveENVIRONMENT: Change in land use, climate, loss of biodiversity, CO2, production green house gases, nitrous oxides, waste,use of water, fertiliser, pesticides, fossil fuels, etc.Probability offood beingcontaminatedNUTRIENT CONTENTProbability ofnutrient loss(quantity andquality)ECONOMIC VALUECONSUMERS• Choices• Behaviours• CircumstancesHUMAN HEALTH &WELL BEINGContext and framework
  • 7. FOODBORNE HAZARDS CONSUMERSRisk assessment following Codex Alimentarius Commission1) hazard identification, 2) hazard characterisation, 3) exposure assessment, 4) risk characterisation→ risk managementAvailabilityAccessUtilisationfoodsecurity“no harm”, ideally promoteContaminationof feed andwaterDisease emergence,introduction, spread.Veterinarybiologicals, farmchemicalsMixing, partitioning, removal, cross-contaminationGrowth & inactivationChemicalsMixing, partitioning,cross-contamination,growth and inactivationProbability offood beingcontaminatedData collection to assess food safety risks, factors influencingavailability, access and utilisation, and management opportunities• Literature review• Questionnaire survey for all steps of the livestock/fish value chain• Biological sampling along the chain up to retail level• Participatory rural assessments for producers and consumers• Focus group discussions with women and children
  • 8. Study sites and samplingTilapia value chain in Egypt• Species: Tilapia – mostcommonly farmed fish• Professional - Kafrelsheikh ismain fish producing governatein Egypt (55% of fish output)• Three case study areas, ruralfish producing, rural non-fishproducing, peri-urban• Survey, PRA, FGD, SSI• Biological samples: pesticideresidues, heavy metals,aerobic plate count, 5 specificmicrobiological pathogensPork value chain in Vietnam• Species: Pork – most oftenconsumed livestock product• Dominance of small tomedium scale semi-intensivesystem• Three communes each in twodistricts with differenteconomic status• PRA, FGD, SSI• Questionnaire based surveysand biological sampling takingand analysis in next phase ofthe projectDairy value chain in Tanzania• Species: Dairy cattle –indigenous and commercial• Dominance of small-scaleproduction, has potential forgrowth• Five case study areas in twodistricts with differentproduction systems• Survey, PRA, FGD, SSI• Biological samples: coliformcount, total plate count, PCRfor Escherichia coli andBrucella abortus
  • 9. Egypt – fish consumptionLarge differences in availability of fish depending on geographiclocation (fish producing area, non-fish producing area, peri-urbanarea)Strong seasonal patterns in availability (summer – winter)Consumers reported smell, colour of fish and gills, firmness anddegree of detached scales as the main attributes for fish qualityConsumers are not buying fish with changes in these attributeseven if there are no other choicesFish is usually bought either from retailers in the village market(during the market day), fish shops in the village or in the nearbycity• Most consumers ask the seller to clean, and eviscerate fish to take ithome ready for preparation• Also common to ask seller to cook fry or grill fish to take it home readyfor consumption
  • 10. Tanzania – milk consumption a risk?Various contamination pathways and critical control points identifiedalong the dairy value chainOnly livestock product that is consumed several times a week by themajority of householdsMilk commonly bought fresh/raw in the morning, then filtered and boiledfor 5 to 30 minutes – most frequently consumed boiledRaw milk consumption reported for the respondent, children, pregnantand the elderlyCommon for adults, children, elderly, pregnant women to drinkfermented milkRaw milk often used as “detoxifying agent” and “to clean the system”Strong seasonal fluctuations in availability and accessMultiple quality attributes reported, but consumers often buy milk even ifthey think it is not safe
  • 11. Discussion and outlookIndications of multiple trade-offs between foodsafety and nutritionPotential for increasing food safety in thechains and improving food securityAnalysis of data to answer specified set ofquestionsProvide recommendations for researchpriorities to funding body
  • 12. AcknowledgmentsCollaborators, advisors and colleagues from the International Livestock Research Institute,Agriculture for Nutrition and Health, Australian Center for International Agricultural Research,International Food Policy Research Institute, Leverhulme Centre for Integrative Research inAgriculture and Health, Royal Veterinary College, Safe Food Fair Food, Worldfish, Kafr El SheikUniversity, Sokoine University of Agriculture, MoreMilkIT, Hanoi School of Agriculture, HanoiSchool of Public Health:Mahmoud El Tolth, Malcolm Dickson, Ahmed Mohamed Nasr Allah, Diaa Abdel Reheem Kenawy, MalcolmBeveridge, Laurian Unnevehr, Amanda Wyatt, Prof. Kwaku Tano-Debrah, Kennedy Bomfeh, Yolande Ake Assi-Datte, Sylvain Traore, Mabrouk Ragab El-Sabagh, Ahmad Hamza, Kristina Rösel, Jeff Waage, Elaine Ferguson,Alain Dangour, Kenda Cunningham, Jody Harris, Emily Morgan, Mieghan Bruce, Rosie Green, Paula Dominguez,Pablo Alarcon, Lusato Kurwijila, George Msalya, Anna Sikira, Peter Ruvuga, Christina Henjewele, Mkani Waziri,Muhidini Zungo, Nesia Hozza, Edison Hamis, Fortunate Shija, Ernesta Joseph, Maud Carron, Silvia Alonso, HungNguyen, Karl Rich, Lucy Lapar, Fred Unger, Huyen Thu Nguyen, Jeffrey Gilbert, Minh Hien Nguyen, Nguyen Nga;Pham Hong Ngan; Rainer Asse, Korapin Tohtubtiang, Kohei Makita, Seth De VliegerThank you for your attention!

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