Mapping of gender roles and decision making in milk value chains in Tanzania


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Presented by Anna Sikira at the Livestock and Fish Gender Working Group Workshop and Planning Meeting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 14-18 October 2013

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Mapping of gender roles and decision making in milk value chains in Tanzania

  1. 1. Mapping of gender roles and decision making in milk value chains in Tanzania Dr. Anna Sikira Sokoine University of Agriculture Morogoro, Tanzania Livestock and Fish Gender Working Group Workshop and Planning Meeting Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 14-18 October 2013
  2. 2. Presentation outline • • • • • Definition of key word Background information Methodology Results Conclusion
  3. 3. Definition of gender roles • Sex roles-are universal (unchanging) characters of men and women based on their biological capabilities • Two main sex roles for women are child bearing and breast feeding under natural condition • Men’s sex role are fertilization • Gender roles-evolved thru social, cultural, economic and political process: different activities that men and women play in the society • Gender roles can be played by both men and women
  4. 4. Introduction •The contribution of livestock sector to the Tanzanian GDP can never be over emphasized • The livestock sector contributed 5.9% to the total GDP in 2006 & provide food to people •It acts as a source of income for the livestock keepers •The sector contributes to sustainable agriculture through provision of manure and draft power
  5. 5. Introduction cont’ • Despite the importance, yet the contribution of this sector to the GDP is still low compared to crop pdn • subsistence production is a predominant phenomenon affecting this sector. • Similarly, commercial (Smallholder) dairy production has a number of constraints including: – Selling of products directly and in small quantities by individual smallholder producers • Creating diseconomies of scale.
  6. 6. Introduction cont’ • Unequal division of responsibilities and income from livestock btn men and women • A project known as “adapting dairy market hubs for pro-poor smallholder value chains in Tanzania” was formulated to ensure inclusive growth and reduced poverty and vulnerability among dairy actors
  7. 7. More milkIT project in Tanzania • ILRI in collaboration with Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) are implementing this project. • Year one of the project was the inception research that was to inform the remaining four-years of the project period • Among other components, defining roles of actors to enhance hub formation was done
  8. 8. Objective of the study • Specifically the study assessed the current status of the Tanzanian dairy sector • Identified appropriate entry points and partners for promoting a more pro-poor development orientation • Despite that dairy cattle are considered men’s property; women have various responsibilities in the nodes of the chain
  9. 9. Gender roles in milk value chain • The assumption is that as women are involved in daily management of cattle, the benefit will also trickle down to the family income (Lavan et al, 2009). • Gender roles are cultural based, they vary from one place to another KIT et al., (2012) cited in Jeckonia et al., (2013)
  10. 10. Theoretical framework of the paper • It is based on the gender role conflict theory on psychological state of an individual • Whereby socialized gender roles have negative consequences on the person (ONeil, 1997; Burke, 2000) • The gender role conflict occurs due to the existence of inflexible and unjust gender roles that result into restriction, devaluation or violation of others or self (ONeil, 1981) cited in Burke (2000).
  11. 11. Theoretical framework cont’ • Gender role conflicts entail cognitive, emotional, unconscious, or behavioral problems caused by socialized gender roles learned in an unjust patriarchal society. • Such conflicts occur when there is unequal distribution of income accrued from shared activity
  12. 12. The paper answers the following questions • Are women and men have equal roles in dairy value chain? • Are gender roles distribution has an impact on income distribution and thus affecting livelihood improvement among actors? • Are unequal gender roles distribution has an impact on proper functioning of the dairy hub?
  13. 13. Methodology • The study was conducted in Morogoro and Tanga regions • Two districts of Morogoro region were Kilosa and Mvomero while in Tanga region the districts were Handeni and Lushoto, representing Rural-to Rural and Rural- Urban Market orientation. • The selection of these areas emanated from the scoping study
  14. 14. Study design • A cross sectional research design was adopted in which data were collected at a single time by the PRA team • Two villages from each district were randomly selected.
  15. 15. Study population • The study population included the Livestock keepers engaged in extensive and intensive systems • Farmers in Kilosa, Mvomero and Handeni represented the extensive with significant semiintensive • Lushoto farmers represented Livestock keepers involved in Extensive/Sedentary with significant semi-intensive & intensive (improved)
  16. 16. Sample size • All systems were therefore represented by at least 2 villages (3 groups of extensive/agro pastoral zebu farmers; 3x8=24x2=48 • Three groups of extensive/sedentary zebu farmers 8x3x3= 72 • Two groups of semi intensive and intensive improved breed farmers) 8x3x2= 48 • Total focus group participants were 168
  17. 17. Random selection of farmers • To ensure gender balance, the 1st hh picked was asked to send a man to the meeting • the 2nd hh a woman, the 3rd hh a man etc. • Random replacement was done where, for example, a female representative had other responsibility and vice versa.
  18. 18. Key informants selection • Key inputs suppliers were identified using information from the previous day from FGDs and from local opinion leaders • These include: Input suppliers, Vendors and Traders were individually interviewed
  19. 19. Data analysis •Data analysis and processing was done qualitatively whereby content analysis was used to process data from focus group discussion, key informants, and from secondary information sources. •Using proportional pilling approach, quantification of data was done.
  20. 20. Results &Discussion Roles of women in the extensive system • Milking is done by women to a large herd of cows • Separate milk for sale and for home consumption • Isolating calves from the main herd before taking them to the grazing area • Prepare food for the one taking cattle to the grazing area
  21. 21. Roles of women in the extensive cont’ • Take care of the calves i.e feeding and ensuring that they get water for drinking • In some villages women move around selling milk to the non-Maasai communities • Receive animals from the grazing area and prepare for milking • Collecting special firewood used for preservation and adding aroma to the milk- traditionally known as msisiro
  22. 22. Roles of women in the extensive system • In case of loss of an animal, the women will be punished and ordered to pay. • During transhumance, some of the gender roles change: • Milking is done by men instead women, however, others move with their wives
  23. 23. Role of men in the extensive system • Work as guards/watchmen in the night especially in the wet period • Cross checking of animals from field • Treating sick animals before taking cattle to the field • Graze animals near home compound before taking them to the grazing area
  24. 24. Role of men in the extensive system cont’ Other activities done in the dry season: • Repairing of cattle shed when need arises • Surveying areas with better pasture before moving animals in the dry season • Overseer of all activities related to livestock
  25. 25. Number of hours used by men and women • Women spend 6:30-7:00 and 11:30 in the wet and dry seasons respectively • Men spend 4 hours in the dry season while 5-6hours are spent during wet season
  26. 26. Wome’s roles in the semi-intensive system In the dry season • Fetching water for animals in areas such as Kwang’wenda • Milking of animals • Taking milk to the market • Fetching grasses for animal
  27. 27. Roles of women in the wet season • Activities are similar except that in wet season grasses are just near the home compound • Grazing of animals specifically for Kwampunda village • It should be noted that both men and women do all activities related to livestock
  28. 28. Decision making in extensive system • Decisions are mainly done by men because they control household income • Men also are more exposed to latest information related to availability of inputs like drugs than women • Decisions are jointly done for the married couples, while widow and single mothers make own decisions in intensive system
  29. 29. Conclusion • Majority of women in extensive system participate in the production node than in other nodes of the milk value chain • Most of gender roles are performed by women in extensive system than in intensive system and earn little inline with Gender role conflict theory • All important decisions are made by men and control of income from sale of live animals is done by men.
  30. 30. Conclusion cont’ • Income & Decisions related to milk and milk products are made by women. • however it was apparent in the group that with commercialization of milk sales men get integrated in the decision as more money is earned.
  31. 31. Conclusion cont’ • Traditionally milk sale is purely a women’s role and they could use sales for buying cattle or shoat, which belongs to women, but men will still have control of all the cattle or sheep & goat (shoats) in the household. • In the intensive and semi-intensive system, gender roles are shared between men and women (Kabuku, Manyinga, Kwang’wenda and Kwampunda villages).
  32. 32. Recommendations • For a proper functioning of the milk hub, participation of actors should be equal • Women should participate in all nodes of the milk value chain • The project should address the unequal division of labour thru capacity building and lobbying by traditional leaders