Gender in the East Africa Dairy Development Project
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Gender in the East Africa Dairy Development Project

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Presented by Isabelle Baltenweck and Gerald Mutinda at the Livestock and Fish Gender Working Group Workshop and Planning Meeting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 14-18 October 2013

Presented by Isabelle Baltenweck and Gerald Mutinda at the Livestock and Fish Gender Working Group Workshop and Planning Meeting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 14-18 October 2013



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  • Gender and Assets in Agricultural Projects conceptual (GAAP) framework offers a way for ‘understanding the gendered pathways through which asset accumulation occurs, including attention to not only men’s and women’s assets but also those they share in joint control and ownership’
  • Depending on the types of hubs promoted, women may be at risk of losing control of milk incomeIf women unable to retain income from milk sales, milk can be diverted to other channels, jeopardizing DFBA profitability… it makes business sense to apply a gender lens at DFBA level also
  • (animal diseases, climatic shocks). Investing more resources like land and labour in dairy activities may also jeopardize household financial stability if negative shocks like human diseases occur than prevent good running of the dairy entreprise. Shocks affect differently men and women, a gender lens is required here also A lesson learnt in EADD-1- so that farmers and particularly women gain the required management skills formal and informal savings and loan program, micro insurance, education and awareness on health insurance

Gender in the East Africa Dairy Development Project Gender in the East Africa Dairy Development Project Presentation Transcript

  • Gender in the East Africa Dairy Development Project Isabelle Baltenweck and Gerald Mutinda Livestock and Fish Gender Working Group Workshop and Planning Meeting Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 14-18 October 2013
  • Motivation  EADD1 pilot – Factsheet  Scope  Duration: Jan 2008- Sept 2013  Budget: USD42.85 M + USD8.5M supplement (BMGF) for 1 additional year  Investment fund: USD5.0m  BMGF: USD2.5m  Heifer: USD2.5m  Partners  BMGF  HI - lead  TNS - business  ILRI – knowledge-based learning  ABS – genetics & breeding  ICRAF – feeds & feeding  Structure (120+ staff)  Country offices  Kenya  Rwanda  Uganda  Regional office
  • FARMERS OTHER RELATED MEs HARDWARE SUPPLIERS CHILLING or BULKING FACILITIES VILLAGE BANKS FIELD DAYS TESTING AI & EXTENSION FEED SUPPLY TRANSPORTERS
  • Motivation (cont.)  EADD Vision and Objectives Vision Transform the lives of 179,000 smallholder farming families (approximately 1 million people) by doubling their household dairy income in 10 years. Objectives • Harness information for decisions and innovation • Expand access to markets • Increase productivity and efficiencies of scale
  • Lessons from EADD I Limited attention to gender in original plan Staff not equipped to address gender based constraints Gender strategy, budget and staffing • Few (2) milestones on Gender, output oriented e.g training women) • No strategy outlined in the proposal, and therefore no implementation plan • No Gender expertise and resources allocated • Limited understanding among the staff on why gender matters in the program vision‘We do gender because of the donor’ • Difficulty monitoring gender (and age group) milestones • Unintentional Gender outcomes concealed and unaccounted for • Gender strategy developed in 2009 using baseline survey results and FGDs with key staff • Staff training and hiring of Gender (and Youth) Coordinator in 2010 • Development of gender and age group disaggregated data templates • Gender workplan integrated & performance targets formulated and budget allocated • Development and documentation of strategies to include women in project activities
  • What can we learn from the final evaluation? • Evaluation conducted by independent evaluator (TANGO) • Field survey conducted in the 3 EADD countries, using both qualitative and quantitative methods
  • Women staff, in hub management and Boards Issue/ challenge • In previous projects, most staff are men • most staff do not understand gender issues Strategies • affirmative action on staff recruitment (30% staff women) • staff trained on gender Outcomes (final evaluation report) Project level: significant concentration of women in key positions on the EADD country team Producers Organisation management level: Women mainstreamed in hub management positions (all countries), and are well represented as BDS providers (Kenya and Rwanda) Producers Organisation Boards of Directors (BoD) o o o Women comprise 30% of BoD members in over 35% of Pos in Kenya, 19% of POs in Uganda, and in all the POs in Rwanda (as per the Government of Rwanda policy) However, women’s equitable leadership and active participation rarely accompany this step forward, except in Rwanda Higher challenges in pre- existing POs due to governance structures dominated by males
  • Women registered farmers and ‘active’ farmers Issue/ challenge • Low % women members of dairy cooperatives (14% at baseline) Strategies • Both husband and wife can register with the PO • Promoting joint bank account did NOT work • Some BoDs received gender sensitization trainings Outcomes (final evaluation report) By December 2012, 31.5% of registered farmers were female A number of married female DFBA members do not actively participate In Uganda, qualitative observations indicate that women’s participation in DFBAs is weaker in pastoral settings compared to intensive farming sites. Female-headed households in Uganda and Rwanda are more likely to be among the non-engaged group of farmers than the engaged group: need for separate strategy
  • Women’s involvement in the dairy value chain Issue/ challenge • Women not reaping the benefits of dairy in proportion of their labor and efforts Strategies • Staff trained on gender issues • Some gender mainstreaming in technical training at community level Outcomes (final evaluation report) In Kenya, men and women are just as likely to be involved in the dairy value chain and there is little difference between the types of activities they carry out. In Uganda and Rwanda, men are more likely to be involved in the dairy value chain than women, and the type of involvement differs But men remain the primary decision makers for decisions related to dairy assets and income In Kenya, by reducing herd sizes, less time is spent looking for grass for a large herd and less time is spent milking many cows. Milk volumes have increased and overall dairy labor has decreased. An increased network of transporters and more accessible collection routes have eased the women time burden
  • Women’s involvement in training Issue/ challenge • Women do not participate fully in extension/ training Strategies • Staff trained on gender issues • Some gender mainstreaming in technical training at community level Outcomes (final evaluation report) • The project is successfully including women as extension and training providers in Kenya and Rwanda • Survey data show that for all major training categories, larger percentages of women from the engaged farmer group report they have received training compared to women in the non-engaged and control group Insufficient efforts to improve female farmers’ access to dairy information through training: in Uganda, there are 10 -12 % difference between households where at least one male has received training and households where at least one woman has received training. In Rwanda, among active suppliers, there is an 8-18 % difference between men and women for many training categories. The gap is widest for milk quality and animal health training
  • Gender Strategy in EADD II A twofold approach • A separate and cross cutting major objective on gender to ensure that supporting outputs and activities are included fully in the project design and budgeted for: - • EADD-2 wide gender policy/strategy Enhanced capacity of EADD staff and partners to mainstream gender Relevant gender outputs and activities are mainstreamed in the other respective major objectives
  • Proposed Gender Activities in EADD II 1. Increasing access to assets that women require to participate fully in project activities and benefit from these 2. Increasing returns to assets by increasing productivity and/or improving access to market 3. Reducing risks and vulnerability (Meinzen-Dick et al., 2011
  • 1. Increasing access to assets that require women to participate fully in project activities and benefit from them. Type of Examples of capital Gender based constraints Possible Strategies capital Physical Equipment required for dairy Significantly fewer female headed households production and marketing Access to loans through groups owned assets compared to male headed households. Natural Cattle, land, water Women less likely to own exotic cattle (within Encouraging households to register different cows households and across all countries, both local under different members names and exotic cattle were mainly owned by men) Political Identity card, assertiveness in Women represent 19 and 25 % of Board Link with Department of Registration of persons to meetings, leadership position in members in Kenya and Uganda DFBA at least 1/3 women in Boards Being a member of a group, Farmers groups ability Social facilitate access to IDs; Enforce legal requirement of Training on assertiveness and leadership skills; to participate in collective action Human Appropriateness of technologies promoted-e.g dual crops-fodder and food households in Kenya and Rwanda. DFBA shares, savings account Female heads of households had significantly fewer years of schooling than male headed Financial Education, health exchange visits Household approach to extension services Women constitute 30% of shareholders (June 2012) Significantly higher proportions of men than women had applied for a loan across the 3 EADD countries. EADD baseline report 6 (gender), 2009
  • 2. Increased returns to assets by increasing productivity and/or improving access to market Participation in specific value chain is gendered. Proposed strategies: • Training • bargaining and negotiation skills, especially those participating in informal markets and carving business roles along the chain (e.g. youth milk transporters in Uganda) • Innovative modes of payment • mobile money technology to allow women access financial services • Broaden check off system: • includes household food stuff as a win –win strategy for the household and the DFBA: women would be encouraged to sell milk through the DFBA and be able to get more affordable food items
  • 3. Reducing risks and vulnerability EADD interventions may increase household vulnerability to shocks Proposed strategies • Introducing improved breeds gradually • Providing linkages with financial services providers
  • Recap - EADD I to EADD II EADD I Proposed for EADD II Gender analysis By product of the baseline “Know Her” - Gender analysis at various levels of the value chains Attention to gender (and youth) limited “Design for Her” - Gender mainstreamed in all Major Objectives + 1 Objective on Gender and Youth Empowerment Partner in charge HI All partners - gender is mainstreamed in all Major Objectives Activities Some Embedded in other activities based on analysis of gender based constraints Monitoring & Evaluation Limited “Be accountable to Her” - Sex and age group disaggregated monitoring template Profile case studies to gain deeper understanding of outputs especially at HH level Evaluation- undertake thematic studies on gender and youth