Presentation by Patrice Gautier of the Asian Veterinary and Livestock Services (ASVELIS) at the Managing Risks in Emerging Pork Markets: An International South – South Symposium, held in Hanoi, Vietnam, April 23 2012.
Good practices for pork value chains in emerging countries
Good practices for pork value chains in emerging countries. Patrice Gautier, Dr. Vet. firstname.lastname@example.orgManaging Risks in Emerging Pork Markets: an international south-south symposium Hanoi, April 2012
Born as a pig farmer in Brittany … Trained as a vet in Europe … Trained as a livestock extension worker in Vietnam …
Since 2007 … Asia + Africa + West AfricaLivestock Development Evaluation & Animal Health Strengthening of NationalVeterinary Public Health Veterinary Services
ASVELIS’ direct activities related to the pork sector:Vietnamese Village Thai-Burmese Village 1. Increasing crossbred piglet production with smallholders. 2. Animal Health services to medium pig farmers around Hanoi. 3. Bringing safe pork to Hanoi consumers (to be started in 2012)
About this presentation: • An attempt to give some initial guidance to those who want to engage into (or organize) the farming / slaughtering / retailing of pork meat and get as close as possible to OIE & CODEX international standards. • Issues / Solutions / Good Practices at various stages of the value chain and for various private and public stakeholders: • Strategic planning. • Farming. • Slaughtering. • Marketing / Retailing / Catering. • Laboratories. • Veterinary Administration.
The level of upgrades in pork value chain dependson the current situation and expected objectives.• Backyard pigs for very local consumption: • Biological hazards > chemical hazards. • Focus on zoonotic diseases. • Focus on basic hygiene at house-slaughtering.• Small & medium scale fatteners for “within-the-district” consumption: • Focus on chemical residues & zoonotic diseases. • Focus on higher hygiene at slaughter slabs & small slaughterhouses.• Medium & large-scale fatteners for urban markets: • Focus even more on chemical residues. • Implement strict hygiene practices in well-designed & well-operated small / medium slaughterhouses, with basic chilling facilities. • Should be the only ones allowed to sell outside district/province.
Strategic Planning Issues Solutions& Good PracticesAt National levelLack of consultation between stakeholders. Identification of public & private stakeholders. Meetings between representatives of various stakeholder groups.Poor description of the current situation. Situational Analysis / “Where are we now?”Lack of strategy and accurate objectives. Strategic Objectives / “Where do we want to be in the future?”Lack or inadequacy of projects / programs. Development Plan / “How do we get there?” Coordination!For a pork entrepreneurLack of understanding of customer demand & its Defining what pork for what kind of customers.likely evolution over the future.Lack of Business Plan Planning (human, physical, financial resources …)Overproduction or inability to meet customer Decide on initial production capacity anddemand after initial success. subsequent increases.
Strategic Planning applied to Strengthening Veterinary Services « Treatment » Capacity Building, Specific Activities, Projects and Programs Veterinary Legislation « Diagnosis » « Prescription » Public / Private Partnerships PVS Pathway PVS PVS Follow-Up Evaluation Gap Analysis Veterinary Missions including Education Veterinary Services’ Strategic Priorities Laboratories
Farming Issues Solutions& Good PracticesBIOLOGICAL HAZARDSHealthy or apparently healthy pigs with zoonotic Active & passive disease surveillance (serology,parasites, JE, HEV, flu etc. coprology, post-mortem inspection …), prevention …Sick pigs going in the meat chain with zoonotic Biosecurity + Vet supervision + Compensation +bacteria. Ethics.CHEMICAL HAZARDSSystematic high level of antimicrobial residues Use of “final stage” factory feed from a reliable feedbecause of wrong factory feed. manufacturer at least 10 days before slaughtering.Systematic high level of hormone residues because Strict regulations about vet medicines + laboratoryof farmer’s administration & trader’s push. testing + ethics + heavy punishment.Irregular high levels of antimicrobial residues Biosecurity + Vet supervision + Compensation +because of pig sickness before slaughtering (pushed Ethics + Laboratory testing in meat.by salesmen).Heavy metals (from water etc.) Laboratory testing.PHYSICAL HAZARDSNeedles … Farmers & vets’ attention.
New suggestedclassification for pigfarming systems inVietnam:=> Avoiding the terms“commercial”,“smallholders”,“family-based” …=> Any of thesesystems can producesafe pork and any ofthese systems canproduce unsafe pork!
Pre-condition: Knowing & complying with OIE international standards.• OIE Animal Health Code for Terrestrial Animals.• Useful documents: • OIE-FAO Guide to Good Farming Practices for Animal Production Food Safety. 2011. • The Pork Quality Assurance Plus (USA).
Slaughtering Issues Solutions& Good PracticesEven when good slaughtering practices: lack of Slaughterers to be forced to know the origin of animalstraceability => biological and chemical hazards. (farms)?Lack of basic guidelines about design for small Issues guidelines. See layout examples (below slides) onslaughterhouses. small-scale pig slaughterhouses.Investment Capital: USD 15,000 (for building; Needs public support (grant matching and / or loans).white tiles; basic equipment; chilling room; waste Depreciation over 10 years => USD 20 per week.treatment)Poor hygiene practices in both slaughter slabs Issue guide to good slaughtering practices.and large slaughterhouses. Training of stakeholders.Lack of awareness about the need of rapidly Need for a regulation that forces the use of post-chilling the meat if it is not going to be consumed slaughtering rapid chilling for meat to be stored over fewquickly => probably one explanation for the ILRI days (supermarkets, shops etc.).research result on microbiological contamination Training of stakeholders.of pork meat at supermarkets.Ante & post-mortem inspection. Training of public veterinarians; delegation to private vets.Water quality Need further R&D on cost-effective systems.Waste management Need further R&D on cost-effective systems.Animal Welfare Reduce transport time; use simple electro narcosis shears.
Small-Scale poultry slaughterhouse in Vietnam.• Adapted from France.• Initial investment = USD 15,000.• Capacity: up to 500-1,000 poultry per day.• Can be used for 10-50 pigs per day with some adjustments.
Marketing, retailing &catering Issues Solutions& Good PracticesVariable hygiene practices at retailing & catering Issue guidelines for retailers and caterers.stages. Upgrade regulations.Lack of knowledge in cold chain aspects. Training of stakeholders.Even when good retailing / catering practices and Retailers and caterers should start to ask forwhen good external aspect of meat: lack of origin of product (farms & slaughterhouses) andtraceability => biological and chemical hazards. visit them.Inadequate communication with customers. Training of stakeholders.Lack of branding.Insufficient laboratory analyses especially on Request laboratory analyses based on riskchemical residues. assessments.Customers not willing to pay a premium price Farmers’ organizations or farmer-vet partnership(>20%). (ASVELIS example) to cover the entire value chain from farm to table, therefore with a control on traceability, products’ selling prices etc.
Laboratories Issues Solutions& Good PracticesTesting for micro-organisms (Salmonella, Training of laboratory staff; increase number ofCampylobacter etc.): testing for staff to acquire experience etc.- No serotyping. Better design of protocols for sampling.- Not looking at prevalence according to the production stage (farm, slaughterhouse etc.)Testing for antimicrobial residues: high cost & lack of Use of cheap/rapid test (Premi-Test).sensitivity of current methods.Insufficient testing for heavy metals, hormones, Need risk assessments& more testing.melamine etc.Overall deficiencies of laboratories (opening hours; Review and repeat the CSIRO-led assessment of thestandard operating procedures; certification etc.) capacities of national laboratories in ASEAN. Encourage the development of private laboratories.
Veterinary Administration Issues Solutions& Good PracticesDescribed in the OIE reports (2005 & 2010) on Gradual implementation of the strengtheningthe PVS Evaluation of Veterinary Services of program decided by OIE & Vietnam’s DepartmentVietnam. of Animal Health (PVS Gap Analysis report – 2010).
Starting small is possible. One pig farmer 10 sows => 4 fatteners per weekOne part-time One small slaughterhouse Veterinarian A small retailing outlet 500 initial consumers (0.5 kg per person per week = 250 kg of meat per week)
1. Urgent actions needed to help small pig producers feedtheir own villages & townships, before they get all invaded with cheap pork from large-scale pig sector. Local pork from Pork cuts “imported” from villagers large-scale farms
2. Is it acceptable that children in many emergingcountries are exposed to high levels of chemical residues on an almost daily basis through the consumption of animal-derived products and other food?
Diversity & complexity of constraints & opportunities of the pork sector in developing countries. +National & International funding available but inadequately used overall. + Private sector investing or willing to invest = Strategic Planning Exercise (Participatory): An essential tool to start! Thanks for your attention!