Gender aspects of informal markets


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Presentation by Delia Grace and Kristina Roesel at the First African Regional Conference of the International Association on Ecology and Health (Africa 2013 Ecohealth), Grand-Bassam, Côte d'Ivoire, 1-5 October 2013.

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Gender aspects of informal markets

  1. 1. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté  Gender aspects of informal markets Delia Grace  Kristina Roesel  Safe Food, Fair Food team  1. International Livestock Research Instiute,  Nairobi, KENYA  2. Free University Berlin, Germany 
  2. 2. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté  2 Food safety in sub-Saharan Africa • Every year, at least 2 billion cases of diarrhea occur and 1.5 million children under 5 yrs die worldwide • 80% of child deaths due to diarrhea occur in South Asia and Africa • Animal source foods are single most important source of food borne disease (FBD) • In sub-Saharan Africa, large proportion of animal source foods are sold through informal markets
  3. 3. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté  FOOD SAFETY              Characteristics      Benefits                  No effective health and  safety regulations,  Many actors,  Pay no tax,  Traditional processing  & retail practices,  Poor infrastructure,  Little support from  Public and NGO.  Cheap,  Freshness,  local breeds,  Taste,  Trust in vendors,  Credit    INFORMAL  MARKETS 
  4. 4. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté  SAFE FOOD FAIR FOOD   
  5. 5. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté  Risk assessment & management  with a gender perspective  • How do the differing roles of women and men affect their  exposure to hazards?  • How does the biology of women and men, young and old,  healthy and sick affect their vulnerability to different  diseases?  • As food systems undergo change and evolution, how might  this advantage or disadvantage women and men?  • How do women and men differ in their capacity to manage  risk and how can we best enhance risk management?    5
  6. 6. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté  6 Safe Food Fair Food Centre Suisse des Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d’Ivoire Côte d’Ivoire, Mali University of Ghana Ghana Addis Ababa University Ethiopia Nairobi University Kenya Sokoine University of Agriculture Tanzania Direcção de Ciências Animais Mozambique University of Pretoria South Africa
  7. 7. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté  7 Milk (cow)  Production: men (x Nairobi)  Processing: women  Marketing: women (x Abidjan)  Consumed: both  Poultry  Production: women  Processing: women  Marketing: women  Consumed: both  Milk (goat)  Production: men (w milk)  Processing: women  Marketing: women  Consumed: both  Beef/goat  Production: men (w assist)  Processing: m  Marketing: m (butcher, pub)  Consumed: both  Pigs  Production: women  Processing: men  Marketing: men  Consumed: both  Fish, crabs  Fishing: men   Processing: women  Marketing: women)  Consumed: both 
  8. 8. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté  When disease targets women  • High rates of abortion among women in some areas  • Listeria never reported in food  • Listeria reported in sheep  • First study to assess risk of Listeria in Ghana  8 Hazard: Listeria in milk Hazard: Listeria in fish Moderate riskLow risk RISK ASSESSEMENT 
  9. 9. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté  Risk & nutrients for the most  vulnerable  9 Pregnant women avoid  R  U  Intestines  √  √  Head meat  √  √  Spicy food  √  ○  Fishy food  ○  √  Dog meat  √  ○  “Nem chua”‐fermented pork  ○  √  Boiled pork with fresh fig leaves  √  ○ 
  10. 10. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté  New markets change opportunity  and risk  10 Traditionally women control sale & processing pf milk Abijan: new urban markets Markets self-organising Producers immigrants: mainly men & unmarried Men dominate milk value chain Mali: new co-operative expands markets Co-operative trains women Women remain in market Cooperative introduces quality tests Some milk fails tests Women take it home and consume Family health at risk Women have markets for milk Less milk goes to herder Nutrition status at risk
  11. 11. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté  Women are fewer but better butchers  11 Women have a more important role in self-organised groups than officially- organised groups. Women better meat handling practice and better quality meat (p=0.001). Men eat more muscle meat (steak) and women more offal (p=0.004). Peer to peer training resulted in: • a 20% reduction in unacceptable meat • $9 per butcher and saved $780 saved in diarrhoea treatment costs
  12. 12. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté  Acknowledgements  • SFFF leaders: Kohei Makita, Bassirou Bonfoh,  Hung Nguyen, Erastus Kang’ethe, Lusato  Kurwijila, Saskia Hendrickx, Cheryl McCrindle,  Kwaku Tano‐Debrah, Girma Zewde, Helena  Matusse   • Donors: GIZ/BMZ, ACIAR, CAPRI & CRP A4NH  • Partners: FUB; BFR; RGU; HU; STPH  • Producers, transporters, processors, retailers  and consumers of ASF in Ghana, Nigeria, Cote  d’Ivoire and Vietnam  12
  13. 13. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté  13