Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania

1,958

Published on

Presented by Jemimah Njuki, Elizabeth Waithanji, Joyce Macha, Samuel Mburu and Juliet Kariuki at the Gender and Market Oriented Agriculture (AgriGender 2011) Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 31st …

Presented by Jemimah Njuki, Elizabeth Waithanji, Joyce Macha, Samuel Mburu and Juliet Kariuki at the Gender and Market Oriented Agriculture (AgriGender 2011) Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 31st January–2nd February 2011.

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,958
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
61
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Gender and Livestock Value Chains in Kenya and Tanzania
    Gender and Market Oriented Agriculture (AgriGender 2011) Workshop
    Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    31st January–2nd February 2011
    Jemimah Njuki, Elizabeth Waithanji, Joyce Macha, Samuel Mburu, Juliet Kariuki
  • 2. Outline
    Introduction
    Methods and Key research questions
    Results
    Assets, income and access to services
    Women’s participation in livestock markets
    Intra-household income control, decision making and expenditure
    Further Analysis
  • 3. Why livestock?
    Livestock, compared to other productive assets, are an important and accessible asset for women
    Livestock production and marketing as a promising pathway out of poverty
    Strategic focus on women can contribute to long term poverty reduction
  • 4. Key issues
    Women’s access to livestock production resources inhibited by gender-based constraints
    Women are involved in and may control production, but often they do not own the means of production – namely, livestock, land and water
    Existing analyses of the role and economic contribution of women to livestock development and the key challenges they face are inconclusive
    Inequitable gender participation in commercialised livestock markets
  • 5. Key research questions and data
  • 6. Livestock Assets, Income and Access to Services
  • 7. Household ownership of livestock-Kenya
    Local chickens and dairy cows were the most commonly owned livestock species
    Except for other cattle, male headed households owned more livestock than female
    Significant differences in number of dairy cattle, exotic and local chicken
  • 8. Livestock Ownership
    Tanzania
    Kenya
    Most of the value of TLU comes from dairy cattle (and other cattle in Tanzania)
    TLU of male headed households much larger than female headed households
    Despite small livestock (chicken, goats, sheep) by women and FHH, their contribution to TLU is very low
  • 9. Means of acquisition of livestock by women
    Despite other evidence, across species, the main means of livestock acquisition by women was through purchase
    For sheep, goats and local chicken, born into the herd was a common source for women
    Group purchase and grants from NGOs was common for goats and bee hives
  • 10. Access to technologies and services
    Over 50% of households saved money and over 40% of households had received credit
    Female headed households obtained lower amounts than male headed households (14,289Ksh compared to 60, 064 Ksh)
    Women received training and credit in less than 40% of the households, saved money in over 50% of the households in Kenya
    In Tanzania, less than 20%, 40% and 20% of women have ever been trained on livestock, contacted and extension officer or obtained credit
  • 11. Main sources and uses of credit in Kenya
    More women obtained credit from groups, neighbours and friends than men
    More men than women received credit from banks, microfinance organizations and co-ops
    Most credit was used on purchase of assets, payment of school fees, and purchase of livestock
  • 12. Women’s Participation in Livestock Markets
  • 13. Market Participation-Who sold?
    Women participated most in the sale of chicken, eggs and milk
    63% of chicken sales were made by women, 89.1% of the egg sales and 73.1% of the milk sales
    Only about 10% of cattle sales and 30% of goat and sheep sales were made by women
  • 14. Where sold: Milk and Eggs
    Women mainly sold milk and eggs at farm gate to other farmers and to traders
    Very few women delivered to traders /or shop or to city markets
  • 15. Where sold: Chicken and Honey
    Men mainly sold chicken at farm gate to traders or delivered to the traders
    Women mainly sold at farm gate to farmers and traders
    Women only sold honey at farm gate while men had 4 options for marketing honey
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18. What determines market participation by women?
    Milk
    Eggs
  • 19. Intra-household income control, decision making and expenditure
  • 20. Income control by men and women from all sources
  • 21. Income control by men and women for all livestock and products
  • 22. Income control by men and women for all livestock and products
    Largest incomes from milk and chicken
    Sold by women
    Women control less than 30% of the income (high in terms of absolute values)
  • 23. Decision making on sale of women owned livestock
    Women more likely to sell chicken that they own without consulting husbands, compared to other species
  • 24. Expenditure patterns
    Most men used income from livestock on farming, savings and school fees
    Women mainly used on fees, building, payment of loans and savings
  • 25. Conclusions and Implications (i)
    Livestock ownership:
    Clear patterns of ownership for large and small livestock.
    Women and FHH households own less of all livestock compared to men and MHH. Women do not have final say in terms of sale of the livestock they own
    Despite more women and FHH households owning more small livestock than the larger ones, these contribute a very small proportion of total livestock asset portfolio of these households
    Increasing access and ownership of livestock assets by women is a critical first step not only in their empowerment but their participation in and benefits from livestock markets
    Access to services
    Training on livestock and livestock practices still targeted at men and very few women receiving training despite what we know about the roles of men and women in livestock production (especially in Tanzania, in Kenya, less than 40% of FHH)
    Innovative approaches for increasing access to services and technologies including participatory research, group based schemes must accompany interventions to increase women’s participation in output markets
  • 26. Conclusions and Implications (ii)
    Market participation by women
    Most sales by women are done at farm gate to other farmers and traders while men sell more to shops /formal markets. These require less mobility and less investments e.g on transport assets
    Women more engaged in the sale of livestock products compared to the sale of livestock and had a had lower number of options /outlets for sale of products
    Women very engaged in product marketing—further analysis of what this engagement means for them in terms of benefits from these markets
    An analysis of existing markets, women’s preferences and constraints should precede market development.
    Need for multiple strategies including capacity building to engage in formal markets as well as improving women’s profile /roles in informal markets
    Income control and decision making on livestock
    Evaluation needs to go beyond overall household income to look at distributional impact and changes in decision making, management of income and gender equity

×