From r esearch outputs to development outcomes:  Fostering fodder innovation  Ranjitha Puskur International Livestock Rese...
Overview of the presentation <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>ILRI’s approach to research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inno...
Challenges of livestock research for development  <ul><li>Need for research outputs to deliver development outcomes </li><...
Innovation <ul><li>“ a process where knowledge is created and used in new ways, in different contexts, to enhance the live...
Research framework <ul><li>designing and implementing active and prospective research to improve the current system  </li>...
Diversity <ul><li>Livestock systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary in scope and nature of drivers influencing their evolution ...
Major methodological challenges <ul><li>addressing diversity in innovation and livestock systems contexts </li></ul><ul><l...
Research = Systematic Learning Good development project Rigorous scientific  research <ul><li>Action research </li></ul><u...
Livestock system context -Biophysical -Technical -Social -Economic -Political - Institutional System diagnosis Drivers/Fac...
Pilot testing  of interventions <ul><li>Design of interventions </li></ul><ul><li>-Capacity building  of actors </li></ul>...
Fodder Positive Deviance (or Bright spots!) study in Ethiopia <ul><li>If feed technologies are not widely adopted and used...
Fodder Positive Deviance <ul><li>attributed to the interplay of factors and ways of working usually not well attended to i...
Fodder PD <ul><li>pockets of success were mostly found in intensifying crop-livestock systems </li></ul><ul><li>pockets of...
Fodder Innovation Project – India and Nigeria <ul><li>Fodder Innovation Project Phases 1 and 2 – evolution from technology...
FIP2 <ul><li>Worked with a range of KPOs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government (RAGACOVAS – a traditional veterinary university...
Some immediate outcomes.. <ul><ul><li>service delivery systems changing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changing collaborative ...
Some lessons.. <ul><li>fodder is too narrow a theme for building networks and it is more relevant to talk about livestock ...
Some lessons.. <ul><li>Building capacities and processes takes a longer time.  </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback from policy stak...
ILRI is creating and integrating knowledge to  enable diverse partners to find innovative solutions to make livestock a su...
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From research outputs to development outcomes: Fostering fodder innovation

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Presented by Ranjitha Puskur, November 2009

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From research outputs to development outcomes: Fostering fodder innovation

  1. 1. From r esearch outputs to development outcomes: Fostering fodder innovation Ranjitha Puskur International Livestock Research Institute November 2009
  2. 2. Overview of the presentation <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>ILRI’s approach to research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation System + Value chain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some lessons from fodder-focused projects </li></ul>
  3. 3. Challenges of livestock research for development <ul><li>Need for research outputs to deliver development outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>New and increasingly complex agricultural development challenges – also new opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Research/knowledge generation provides just one piece of the puzzle </li></ul><ul><li>Need for diverse partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation systems as the organising principle </li></ul>
  4. 4. Innovation <ul><li>“ a process where knowledge is created and used in new ways, in different contexts, to enhance the livelihoods of livestock-dependant poor ” </li></ul><ul><li>occurs in a system mediated by the actors and their interactions, facilitated (or constrained) by institutions and policies </li></ul>
  5. 5. Research framework <ul><li>designing and implementing active and prospective research to improve the current system </li></ul><ul><li>not just to improve understanding of the livestock issues, but being able to influence actions </li></ul><ul><li>impact taking priority over mere knowledge generation </li></ul>
  6. 6. Diversity <ul><li>Livestock systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary in scope and nature of drivers influencing their evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very different poverty, livelihood and environmental impacts and implications for different systems/regions/countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutions and capacities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actor configurations and capacity to respond to change very diverse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional environments (rules of the game) very heterogeneous </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Major methodological challenges <ul><li>addressing diversity in innovation and livestock systems contexts </li></ul><ul><li>process monitoring to generate lessons </li></ul><ul><li>how more generalizable results can be generated from location-specific research </li></ul><ul><li>how to do this at larger scales </li></ul>
  8. 8. Research = Systematic Learning Good development project Rigorous scientific research <ul><li>Action research </li></ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul><ul><li>M+E </li></ul><ul><li>Aim: Improve performance and optimise local outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Sound methods </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance and applicability </li></ul><ul><li>Aim: General lessons and understanding to improve global outcomes </li></ul>
  9. 9. Livestock system context -Biophysical -Technical -Social -Economic -Political - Institutional System diagnosis Drivers/Factors -Preferences -Policy and institutions -Knowledge -Culture -Risk and vulnerability –Infrastructure Environment - Technology Current state of a livestock issue Current actors, alignment and practices
  10. 10. Pilot testing of interventions <ul><li>Design of interventions </li></ul><ul><li>-Capacity building of actors </li></ul><ul><li>-Enrolment and alignment of actors </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Technical options </li></ul>Baseline Context Drivers Actors Linkages Changes -Actors- Institutions -Alignment -Organizations -Practices -Policy M&E and Learning Lessons and principles
  11. 11. Fodder Positive Deviance (or Bright spots!) study in Ethiopia <ul><li>If feed technologies are not widely adopted and used, are there places where they have been used relatively successfully and if so what is it that could be learned from those few places? </li></ul><ul><li>Can a focus on the positives, as opposed to deficiencies, help to reframe current assumptions and expectations of adoption and use? </li></ul><ul><li>Can that help to refocus the debate on what is realistically possible given the challenges faced in today’s developing country agriculture? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Fodder Positive Deviance <ul><li>attributed to the interplay of factors and ways of working usually not well attended to in typical feed technology transfer arrangements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>incentives for local actors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>functional partnerships with early adopters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>destocking of less productive livestock breeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conditional access to improved breeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improved ways of managing feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improved smallholder organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an improved enabling environment and support system </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Fodder PD <ul><li>pockets of success were mostly found in intensifying crop-livestock systems </li></ul><ul><li>pockets of successful users tend to be highly concentrated in a few locations around different forms of infrastructure and urban centers </li></ul><ul><li>system targeting, but geographical targeting </li></ul>
  14. 14. Fodder Innovation Project – India and Nigeria <ul><li>Fodder Innovation Project Phases 1 and 2 – evolution from technology transfer to experimenting with innovation capacity building for proactive rather than reactive innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>5 sites in 2 countries –different livestock systems context – livestock dependent communities - fodder scarcity a common problem </li></ul>
  15. 15. FIP2 <ul><li>Worked with a range of KPOs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government (RAGACOVAS – a traditional veterinary university) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-government (SG2000 – extension and technology focused) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Government (FES, WOTR, JDPC – broader rural development agenda, community empowerment and collective action focus) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In each site, action was based on context-specific themes ranging from fodder focus to commercialization of smallholder goat farming. </li></ul><ul><li>This led to very context and theme-specific network building process, with different entry points (ranging from forest seeding with fodder species to animal vaccination camps). </li></ul><ul><li>Different trajectories are beginning to evolve. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Some immediate outcomes.. <ul><ul><li>service delivery systems changing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changing collaborative habits and practices of actors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changing institutional arrangements and policy bottlenecks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evidence of demand being generated for fodder- breed and other livestock-related knowledge and technologies (interestingly, technologies which were disseminated earlier but with no uptake) – good examples of research being put into use emerging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>institutional arrangements being designed to take care of equity issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wider institutional impacts – KPOs institutionalizing/mainstreaming approach in their other activities/across organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>innovation brokerage roles emerging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unusual partnerships </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Some lessons.. <ul><li>fodder is too narrow a theme for building networks and it is more relevant to talk about livestock development. </li></ul><ul><li>building networks around crop- livestock value chains and building innovation capacity at that level seems more appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>huge implications for how R4D projects are designed and managed – both for research managers and donors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>traditional logframes and M&E systems do not work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>project financial management and planning needs to be flexible and nimble to accommodate actions to address emerging opportunities and challenges. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>indeterminate outcomes! </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Some lessons.. <ul><li>Building capacities and processes takes a longer time. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback from policy stakeholders is that the evidence is very valuable, but the evidence base is narrow/small. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes and lessons need longer timeframe to mature before they have currency in policy debates and changes. </li></ul>
  19. 19. ILRI is creating and integrating knowledge to enable diverse partners to find innovative solutions to make livestock a sustainable pathway out of poverty

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