Feed the Future: Using crop by-products to intensify and sustain food production

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Presented by Michael Blummel at the ILRI Livestock live talk seminar, Nairobi, 26 September 2012

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Feed the Future: Using crop by-products to intensify and sustain food production

  1. 1. Feed the Future: Using crop by-products to intensify and sustain food production Michael Blümmel ILRI Livestock live talk seminar, Nairobi, 26 September 2012 1
  2. 2. Topics Why target by-products as feed resources Differences in feed/fodder quality matter that matter for productivity, fodder market studies How to improve by-product based feed/fodder resources: exploiting variation, enhance variation, value addition Effect of improved feed/fodder resources on livestock productivity and environment 2
  3. 3. Why by-products Already the most important feed resource in target systems, targeting strongly suggest their importance will further increase They do not compete for land and water and therefore not for food-production Entry point for increasing overall productivity of mixed systems Short delivery pathways, well defined public and private partners with global reach Good acceptability in an environment increasingly reserved against livestock 3
  4. 4. CR becoming more important Kahsay Berhe (2004) study in Yarer Mountain area Cultivated land has doubled at the expense of pasture in 30 years Switch in source of nutrition for livestock from grazing to CR
  5. 5. Sorghum stover trading in Hyderabad 5
  6. 6. Type and cost of sorghum stover traded monthly 2004-2005 in Hyderabad, India Stover type Price IR / kg DM Andhra 3.52b Andhra Hybrid 3.15cd Ballary Hybrid 3.54b Raichur 3.89a Rayalaseema 3.23c Telangana (Local Y) 3.06d Blümmel and Parthasarathy, 2006 6
  7. 7. Relation between digestibility and price of sorghum stover 4.2 y = -4.9 + 0.17x; R2 = 0.75; P = 0.03 Stover price (IR/kg DM) 4.0 Premium Stover 3.8 “Raichur” 3.6 3.4 3.2 Low Cost Stover 3.0 “Local Yellow” 2.8 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 Stover in vitro digestibility (%) Blümmel and Parthasarathy, 2006 7
  8. 8. Stover digestibility and grain yield in new sorghum cultivars release-tested in India between 2002 and 2008 7000 6000 Grain yield (kg/ha) 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Kharif: y = 1473 + 44.2x; r = 0.17; P=0.05 Rabi: y = 9208 -132x; r = -0.47; P < 0.0001 0 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 55 58 61 64 Stover in vitro organic digestibility (%) 8 Blümmel et al. 2010
  9. 9. Targeted genetic enhancement towards higher food-feed-fodder quality Recurrent selection in pearl millet: about 2-3% digestibility in 2-yeas cycle (Bidinger et al. 2010) Hybrid maize production: about 7 to 9% digestibility (Zaidi et al. 2012; Berhanu et al. 2012) Brown mid rib sorghum: about 2-3% digestibility (Srinivas et al., 2012a/b) Stay green introgression in sorghum: about 3-4% digestibility (Blümmel et al 2012). 9
  10. 10. Importance of valueaddition to basal diet, feed processing, densification, fortification 10
  11. 11. Feed block manufacturing: supplementation, densification Ingredients % Sorghum stover 50 Bran/husks/hulls 18 Oilcakes 18 Molasses 8 Grains 4 Minerals, vitamins, urea 2 Courtesy: Miracle Fodder and Feeds PVT LTD 11
  12. 12. Relation between digestibility and price of sorghum stover 4.2 y = -4.9 + 0.17x; R2 = 0.75; P = 0.03 Stover price (IR/kg DM) 4.0 Premium Stover 3.8 “Raichur” 3.6 3.4 3.2 Low Cost Stover 3.0 “Local Yellow” 2.8 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 Stover in vitro digestibility (%) Blümmel and Parthasarathy, 2006 12
  13. 13. Comparisons of high and low qualitysorghum stover based feed blocks in commercial dairy buffalo Block High Block LowCP 17.2 % 17.1%ME (MJ/kg) 8.46 MJ/kg 7.37 MJ/kgDMI 19.7 kg/d 18.0 kg/dDMI per kg LW 3.6 % 3.3 %Milk Potential 16.6 kg/d 11.8 kg/d 13 Anandan et al. (2009a)
  14. 14. Supplementation and processing ofsweet sorghum bagasse and response in sheep Control Concentrat Chaffed e Mash Pellets Block SSBRLDMI (g/kg LW) 52.5 a 55.6 a 42.1 b 41.5 bADG (g / d) 132.7 a 130.4 a 89.5 b 81.3 bProcessing ($/t) 5.9 7.0 5.2 1.7Transport($/t/100km) 6.6 5.8 5.2 13.5 Anandan et al. (2012) 14
  15. 15. Feed intensification,greenhouse gases andnatural resource usage 15
  16. 16. Across herd milk yields (3.61 kg/d) in Indiaand scenario-dependent ME needs for total milk production (81.8 million t/y) ME required (MJ x 109)Milk (kg/d) Maintenance Production Total3.61 (05/06) 1247.6 573.9 1821.56 (Scenario 1) 749.9 573.9 1323.89 (Scenario 2) 499.9 573.9 1073.812 (Scenario 3) 374.9 573.9 948.815 (Scenario 4) 299.9 573.9 873.9 16
  17. 17. Effect of increasing average daily milk yields on overall methane emissions from dairy in India 2.5 current herd average milk yield of 3.61 l/d 2.0Methane produced (Tg) 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0 3 6 9 12 15 Daily milk yield per animal (liter) (Blϋmmel et al. 2009) 17
  18. 18. Livestock revolution: Impact on energy and feed requirements (2005-06) 2020 2020 (fixed LPMilk (million tons) 81.8 172 172yield/day (kg) 3.6 5.24 6.76Numbers (000) 69759 89920 * 69759 Metabolizable energy requirements (MJ x 109)Maintenance 1247.64 1608.22 1247.6Production 573.94 1075.00 1075.00total 1821.58 2683.22 23266.6Feed Req.( m tons) 247.50 364.57 315.6 * Calculated based on CAGR 18
  19. 19. Summary Intuitively “small differences” in feed/fodder quality have significant implication for livestock productivity These differences can be exploited in a wide range of key crops and basal diets and/or generated Combining improved basal diets with supplementation and feed processing can result in economically and environmentally significant level of productivity 19
  20. 20. Outlook In some ways, a proof-of-concept element to presented approaches/findings CRP’s, particularly 3-7, are will providing good frameworks for larger scale put-into-practice With regards to CRP 3-7 focused employment of heath + breed + feed technology will enable and enforce presented approaches 20

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