ILRI Ergonomics Training


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Presented by John W. Ayugi and Pius Makhonge, Nairobi, 22 July 2014

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ILRI Ergonomics Training

  1. 1. ILRI Ergonomics Training John W. Ayugi and Pius Makhonge ILRI Environment, occupational health and safety (EOHS) Nairobi, 22 July 2014
  2. 2. Training outline • Employers Responsibility • Why is Ergonomics Important • What is Ergonomics about • Health Effects of Poor Ergonomic Design • Identifying Ergonomic Hazards • Discussion • Ergo Analyzer (Questionnaire)
  3. 3. Employers Responsibility…..  Responsible for providing a safe and healthful workplace for their employees. Ergonomic principals need to be applied to reduce the musculoskeletal disorders resulting from physical overexertion and associated costs.
  4. 4. What is Ergonomics? This involves fitting the job to the worker and not the worker to the job. This helps to lessen muscle fatigue, increases productivity and reduces the number of severity of work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) The science of adapting workstations, tools, equipment and job practices to be compatible with employees.
  5. 5. Why Ergonomics?  To reduce the risk of; •Accidents •Injury •Ill health that are brought about by poor ergonomics  Reduce Sickness Absence / Costs  Increase Performance / Output Everyone in your organization is at risk and it is not just “heavy” or “physical” jobs that cause injury
  6. 6. Assessments…… •By assessing all aspects of: • Individuals and the jobs they perform e.g. Their physical capabilities, tasks, equipment ,tools and working environment. •To design work systems that are safe, flexible, efficient and productive.
  7. 7. Examples of Musculoskeletal Disorders- MSDs Musculoskeletal Disorders affect the muscles, nerves and tendons. The disorders are: • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome • Tendinitis • Rotator cuff injuries (a shoulder problem) • Epicondylitis (an elbow problem) • Muscle strains and low back injuries
  8. 8. Health Issues Associated with Poor Ergonomics  Pain/Back Injuries  Work related upper limb disorder  Psychological problems (Stress)
  9. 9. Back Pain & Injuries Bending, Twisting, and Lifting • Incorrect Posture • Prolonged Sitting and/or Standing • Slips Trips & Fall • Exposure to Vibration
  10. 10. Work Related Upper Limb Disorders Can affect: – Fingers – Hands – Wrists – Arms – Shoulders – Neck continued “over use” can lead to permanent damage through: Repetitive actions/pacing machines Frequent applications of force Unnatural postures/positions Inadequate R & R (rest and recovery) Inadequate physical preparation (warming up)
  11. 11. Psychological Factors This is a very complex area A person under too much “pressure” may be more at risk from; – Physical / Ergonomic Injury – Fatigue – Accidents [mistakes, inattention, saving time, shortcut’s] – General ill health [run down / poor condition] – Substance Abuse
  12. 12. The Worker &Ergonomics Two Basic Objectives;  Match the requirements of a task to the individual  Optimise the design of the task to the individual to reduce the risk of injury, ill health and discomfort.  E.g.: Work stations may need to be adjustable so that they suit a range of people.
  13. 13. The Worker Each worker is unique: • Size & Shape • Age and Gender • Race and Language • Physical Ability [Health & Fitness] • Limitations [Vulnerabilities, Disabilities, Mental Ability] • Experience •It is very difficult to optimise a task or a workplace to suit everyone
  14. 14. People and Comfort…. different views about • Temperature • Ventilation • Lighting • Background Noise • Isolation • Overcrowding • Communication Discomfort will influence how a person will work
  15. 15. The Risk of Injury…. • You do something too frequently without a break • You work in awkward position/ angles • Your workstation does not “fit” you • You have to stretch, bend or stoop too frequently • You lift things incorrectly • You are under discomfort • You are under significant pressure.
  16. 16. Questions…..
  17. 17. Trauma Disorders…. • Areas of the body most affected are the upper limbs and neck. • Serious disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome, tendinitis and tenosynovitis (tendon injuries) are often associated with VDU use.
  18. 18. Office of Horrors
  19. 19. Ideal Office
  20. 20. Good Ergonomics…..
  21. 21. Additional Setup Steps • Eliminate any reflection on your monitor. • Position any additional equipment in accessible places.
  22. 22. Techniques on Lifting Heavy Objects…..
  23. 23. • One of the biggest injury risk factors is static posture. • Try to spend at least 5 minutes every hour away from your computer. • Remember to ONLY stretch to the point of mild tension. • Try to incorporate the stretches into your daily routine. • This slide provides some illustrations of simple active stretches to perform at the office. Hand Exercises • Tightly clench your hand into a fist and release, fanning out the fingers. Repeat 3 times
  24. 24. Back and Shoulder Exercises Stand up straight, place your right hand on your left shoulder and move your head back gently. Do the same thing for the right shoulder
  25. 25. Head and Neck Exercises… • Move head sideways from left to right and back to left • Move head backwards and then forward
  26. 26. Computer and Desk Stretches…  Sitting at a computer for long periods often cause neck and shoulder stiffness and occasionally lower back pain.  Do these stretches every hour or so throughout the day or whenever you feel still.  Also be sure to get up and walk around the office whenever you think of it. You’ll feel better.
  27. 27. Stretches…..
  28. 28. Stretches Cont……
  29. 29. Stretches Cont……
  30. 30. Health and Safety Interventions.. • All managerial, supervisory and professional workers to be included in health and safety training • Stress and time management programmes • Computer work hazards require organizational, environmental, equipment and training emphasis
  31. 31. Elements and Management of Ergonomic Process  Provide management support  Involve workers  Provide training  Identify problems  Encourage early reporting of MSD symptoms  Implement solutions to control hazards  Evaluate progress
  32. 32. HOME ERGONOMICS •It is about making your home a more comfortable, efficient and user-friendly living space. •The ergonomics of your home greatly affect your body and its overall health.
  33. 33. THE KITCHEN •Install a cushioned mat to stand on along the length of your kitchen • Avoid round faucet knobs in all your sinks • Purchase an oven that is mounted chest high, eliminating the need to bend over. • Choose a refrigerator that has a bottom-mounted freezer, which reduces the need to bend over when accessing the main body of the fridge.
  34. 34. THE LIVING ROOM •Make sure your living room furniture is easy to move • Avoid couches that are too low and choose one with a proper lumbar support • Buy a reading pillow or reading stand • Avoid sitting in front of the television in a position where your neck is maintaining an upward tilt • When eating in front of the television, place food on a surface that is high enough to eliminate the need to bend over to eat.
  35. 35. THE BEDROOM •Use a cervical pillow that supports the natural curve or your neck. • Use products that properly support your neck while reading or watching television in bed, to avoid “wry neck” • Invest in a mattress that supports your spine without creating pressure points
  36. 36. THE BATHROOM •Use bath, floor mats and install hand bars to provide good traction, prevent slips and falls. •Bathroom sinks and showerheads not be too low • Fit all faucets in the house with a user-friendly variety in which low force is necessary to turn the water on and off.
  38. 38. FOR YOUR BACK.. • Choose a vehicle that sits high above the curb—an SUV instead of a sports car— •Enter the car first by sitting down and then swinging your legs under the wheel • To leave your vehicle, slide the car seat back before swinging your legs out and planting your feet on the ground. •Look for cars with automatic transmissions and power steering. •Use a lumbar support cushion and add foam wedges to the seat to elevate pelvis
  39. 39. FOR YOUR NECKS AND SHOULDERS • Avoid leaning forward when you sit in the driver’s seat • Position the car seat so that you are comfortable and not stretching • Make sure there is sufficient room between your head and the roof of the car
  40. 40. OPTIMAL CAR SEAT.. • Choose a comfortable and supportive seat • Confirm that all adjustment mechanisms are easy to use • Make sure the seat material does not create discomfort and all parts of the seat provide adequate support •Children’s car seats to be light in weight , comfortable, adjustable and back/head/shoulder rests to fit the physique of each child.
  41. 41. ERGO DRIVING BREAKS • To reset your spine and alleviate pressure caused by prolonged sitting, take advantage of red lights or sitting in traffic by doing some simple stretches •Holding a steering wheel in awkward postures or too tightly can cause carpal tunnel syndrome
  42. 42. QUESTIONS……..