Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté
A strategy for mainstreaming gender: An
example from a dairy feed val...
Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté
Presentation outline
• Introduction – gender strategy
• History of GS...
Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté
History of GS development at ILRI
3
2002-No capacity on gender
2005- ...
Gender Strategy development CG-wide
•Dates of completion of working drafts
– ILRI ; 2011
– CRP 4 (agriculture for nutritio...
Outputs
• Sex disaggregated qualitative data to inform baseline survey
(gender mainstreamed tools)
• Literature reviews an...
Our vision - activities
Diagnostic study/ engagement with
actors
Capacity building of all actors
engaged
6
Biotechn
ology
...
Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté
Our reality – Results’ convergence towards, and
divergence from, gran...
Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté
Our reality – Results’ convergence towards, and
divergence from, gran...
Lessons learned/ Our reality
Ad hoc actor engagement
Mainly students and junior
Scientists’ capacity addressed
(feedback g...
Alignment with existing theories - lessons
Convergence
• Autonomy (collective model)
seems to be over secondary and
tertia...
Recommendation – actor engagement
Ad hoc actor engagement Systematic actor engagement
Conférence internationale Africa 201...
Recommendation: Capacity building
Non R&D decision makers’
capacity addressed
More Senior scientists need to
become engage...
Alignment with existing theories - recommendations
• Convergences and divergences from documented
theories are correct res...
Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté
Acknowledgements
14
Entire My-dairy team for participation in various...
Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté
15
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A strategy for mainstreaming gender: An example from a dairy feed value chain study in Kenya

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Presentation by E.M. Waithanji, T.N. Kiama, A.J. Sirma, D.M. Senerwa, J. Lindahl and D. Grace at the First African Regional Conference of the International Association on Ecology and Health (Africa 2013 Ecohealth), Grand Bassam, Côte d'Ivoire, 1-5 October 2013.

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A strategy for mainstreaming gender: An example from a dairy feed value chain study in Kenya

  1. 1. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté A strategy for mainstreaming gender: An example from a dairy feed value chain study in Kenya Waithanji E.M.1, Kiama, T.N1,2, Sirma A.J1,2, Senerwa D.M1,2 Lindahl, J1 and Grace D.1 1. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Nairobi, Kenya 2. University of Nairobi , Kenya
  2. 2. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté Presentation outline • Introduction – gender strategy • History of GS development in ILRI and other institutions • Impact pathway • Our vision for activities • Our reality • Lessons learned • Recommendations 2
  3. 3. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté History of GS development at ILRI 3 2002-No capacity on gender 2005- Gender audit commissioned 2006- Gender task force formed 2008- Challenge dialogue 2009-First Gender scientist hired, onset of gender strategy development 2010- Gender focused grants Adapted from ILRI 2011
  4. 4. Gender Strategy development CG-wide •Dates of completion of working drafts – ILRI ; 2011 – CRP 4 (agriculture for nutrition and health); Sept 2012 – CRP 4.3 AAD – mycotoxins ; Oct 2012 – CRP 3.7 ; March 2013 •Most CRP GS within a year of these Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosnté 4
  5. 5. Outputs • Sex disaggregated qualitative data to inform baseline survey (gender mainstreamed tools) • Literature reviews and primary research papers containing a gender component • Publishable gender-strategy implementation process paper Processes /Approaches: • Gender integrated research and development protocols developed and implemented Activities: • Gendered diagnostic study • Engagement with actors and presentation of strategy • Capacity building (gender) • Integration of gender in tools Gendered Outcomes: • Gendered nature of aflatoxin exposure identified • Gender specific areas of mitigation of exposure identified • Women’s access to exposure prevention and mitigation technologies enhanced (including intra- household technology access gap) • Enhanced and equitable nutrition and health benefits because of increased good quality food availability Gender Equitable Impacts (SLOs) Improved livelihoods of communities • Increased food security • Improved nutrition and health • Reduction in rural poverty • More sustainable natural resources Activities Outcomes Outputs Time Numbers Ultimate Impact Intermediate development Outcomes (IDOs) • Enhanced and gender equitable: Productivity; quantity and quality food supply; empowerment; Incomes, environment sustaining practices and pro poor policies • Narrowed: Gender nutrient gap
  6. 6. Our vision - activities Diagnostic study/ engagement with actors Capacity building of all actors engaged 6 Biotechn ology Economics Public health Gender Epidemio logy Value chains Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosnté
  7. 7. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté Our reality – Results’ convergence towards, and divergence from, grand feminist theories THEORY (collective versus unitary household) CONVERGENCE (collective households) DIVERGENCE (Unitary households) • Households do not act in a unitary manner when allocating food and non-food resources (A4NH gender strategy 2012). • Autonomy was mainly limited to less important foods like millet, sorghum and cassava and was exercised by mainly women. • Many activities such as maize and dairy production were done jointly. • Cattle were sometimes owned jointly by women and men. 7
  8. 8. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté Our reality – Results’ convergence towards, and divergence from, grand feminist theories THEORY (Participation by women does not always signify their benefit) CONVERGENCE (Participation without benefit) DIVERGENCE (Participation with benefits) • Provision of labour by women does not necessarily represent control over products and income (ILRI Gender strategy, 2011). • Women were the main owners of chicken. • More men than women reported earning income from poultry sales. • Cattle were sometimes owned by men alone. • More women than men reported earning income from milk. 8
  9. 9. Lessons learned/ Our reality Ad hoc actor engagement Mainly students and junior Scientists’ capacity addressed (feedback given to farmers) Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosnté 9
  10. 10. Alignment with existing theories - lessons Convergence • Autonomy (collective model) seems to be over secondary and tertiary crops • More men, than women who owned chicken, reported earning an income from poultry sales Divergence • Joint activities in maize production and joint ownership of cattle was reported • Although cattle were sometimes owned by men, women mainly earned the milk income Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosnté 10 Questions that need to be asked: • What does asset (chicken and dairy cattle) ownership mean? • What does earning income mean? Is it the same as having control over it? • What matters most, owning an asset, earning an income, or controlling the income? What is joint ownership?
  11. 11. Recommendation – actor engagement Ad hoc actor engagement Systematic actor engagement Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosnté 11
  12. 12. Recommendation: Capacity building Non R&D decision makers’ capacity addressed More Senior scientists need to become engaged in CB Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosnté 12
  13. 13. Alignment with existing theories - recommendations • Convergences and divergences from documented theories are correct results and are bound to occur • Popular reductionist science (especially physics, chemistry and biology) is able to develop laws from multiple theories – this is not the case with social sciences • As biomedical scientists doing gender work, we should refrain from the reductionist tradition and embrace nuances, while explaining them according to context • Context matters Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosnté 13
  14. 14. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté Acknowledgements 14 Entire My-dairy team for participation in various stages of the strategy development Enumerators used in quantitative surveys Male and female farmers interviewed Personnel from ministries of livestock and agriculture
  15. 15. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté 15

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