EcoHealth survey tools development and practical application

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Presented by Fred Unger at a training course for exchange students from Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia. Eco Health/One Health Resource Center, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 15 June …

Presented by Fred Unger at a training course for exchange students from Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia. Eco Health/One Health Resource Center, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 15 June 2013.

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  • 1. Survey tools development and practical application Fred Unger Vet. Epidemiologist  ILRI Training module for EHRC UGM exchange students UGM  visiting the EHRC CMU, Chiang Mai, Thailand Vet Faculty 15 June 2013 06.06.2012 Fred Unger (ILRI)
  • 2. Outline for UGM student exchange - EH tool development module     Training on qualitative and quantitative survey tools Group work to develop tools Field visit and testing of tools Reflections of tool application and field visits (report)
  • 3. Survey tools Quantitative  Qualitative 
  • 4. Survey tools Quantitative  Questionnaires Likert scale Qualitative  In‐depth Interviews FGD
  • 5. Questionnaire – basic guidelines 
  • 6. Mail versus face to face Mail Q:  easy, cheap, more non responders, little information  about non responders, usually only short Q possible,  no information about sequence the Q was answered  Face to face Q high response rate, information about non  responders, longer Q possible, time consuming,  expensive, interview bias, additional information  possible eg through observations
  • 7. • Target the vocabulary and grammar to the population be  surveyed • Avoid ambiguity, confusion, and vagueness. • Avoid leading questions • Avoid double‐barrelled questions • Avoid asking questions beyond a respondent's capabilities
  • 8. Questions should flow from one to the next one  (logical), general to specific, impersonal to personal,  easy to difficult  Keep question interesting for the responder Designed in a way to motivate respondents and to  facilitate recall 
  • 9. Show understanding of the local conditions  (ethnical, socio econ) Develop methods to guarantee confidentially Explain the objective and background carefully
  • 10. Closed ended question  More suitable for statistics Useful for determining frequencies Limited in response, answered in a specific way Risk of missing of important dimensions, not captured in  response option Used for qualitative research 
  • 11. Partially closed ended question  Alternative – compromise to closed/open ended Respondent has chance to create their own responses  e g other category, howewer it often yields little 
  • 12. Open ended question Indispensible for exploratory studies Probing is often needed (information bias) Difficult to use for statistical analysis  Used for qualitative studies 
  • 13. Questionnaire Example Zoonoses study in Guinea • Introduction and purpose (1) Do you know any disease which can be transmitted from animals to human? ① yes  ② no If yes, please kindly fill the table below … (2) Do you have any specific knowledge for Brucellosis? ① yes  ② no  If yes, please kindly fill the table below …
  • 14. Likert scale
  • 15. Developing Likert Rating Scales  • Rating scales yield a single score that references the direction and  intensity of a person’s attitude. • Originally developed by Rensis Likert in 1932, this type of rating  scale is the most widely used attitude scaling technique. Likert rating scales are used in various settings, including clinical,  educational, administrative, and organizational contexts.  Reasons for its popularity include:  1) relatively easy to construct, 2) yields reliable scores, and  3) flexibility in its ability to measure many types of affective  characteristics. 
  • 16. Likert Rating Scales  • Respondents are asked the amount they agree or disagree with a  number of statements.  • A ‘true’ Likert scale uses a 5‐point scale.  • Increasing the number of points on a Likert scale does not help  because most respondents are unable to make finer distinctions.  • A mid‐point allows respondents to select a neutral option and may  be important if the respondent is truly ambivalent on a topic. 
  • 17. Likert Rating Scale Statements  • Select statements that are believed to cover the entire range  the affective scale of interest.  • Keep the language of the statements simple, clear, and direct.  • Statements should be short, rarely exceeding 20 words.  • Each statement should contain only one complete thought.  • Whenever possible, statements should be written in simple  sentences rather than compound or complex sentences.  • Avoid the use of the words that may not be understood by  those who are to be given the completed scale. 
  • 18. Type of scale/points on continuum 1 2 3 4 5 Effectiveness Very Effective Effective Neither Effective nor Ineffective Ineffective Very Ineffective Frequency Always Often About Half the Time Seldom Never Satisfaction Very Satisfied Satisfied Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Very Dissatisfied Effectiveness Very Effective Effective Neither Effective nor Ineffective Ineffective Very Ineffective Very Good Good Average Poor Very Poor Much Better than Expected Better than Expected As Expected Worse than Expected Much Worse than Expected Quality Expectancy
  • 19. Examples • How many friends you will have in the new school? A lot less less about the same more a lot more • • What do you think about the price of chicken inThailand  very expensive  expensive neither agree or disagree cheap very cheap Do you think the price of chicken is too expensive in Thailand  Strongly agree agree neither agree or disagree disagree strongly disagree 
  • 20. Quantitative In‐depth interviews (IDI)
  • 21. IDI • Interviewing is a method of qualitative research in  which the researcher asks open‐ended questions  orally and records the respondent’s answers • Are flexible and continuous. They are not locked in  stone and are often not prepared in advance.  • Listening is the most important skill in interviewing.   The hardest work for many interviewers is to keep  quiet and to listen actively
  • 22. IDI Example Zoonoses study in Guinea • Introduction and purpose • Zoonoses perception & knowledge in general • General perception/knowledge on Brucellosis
  • 23. Quantitative Focus group discussion  (FGD)
  • 24. FGD • Is a form of qualitive research in which a  group of people are asked about their  perceptions, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes. • Questions are asked in an interactive group  setting where participants are free to talk with  other group me
  • 25. Some guidelines ‐ FGD  • Stick to the pre‐determined guidelines but keep some  flexibility • Inform the group in advance the approximate duration of  the interview, then complete the interview within the  time specified   • Be respectful and courteous to all participants, and offer  few questions and advice • Avoid leading respondents during FGD (e.g. by motivate   a wide range of respondents including woman)
  • 26. FGD Example Zoonoses study in Guinea • Introduction and purpose • Zoonotic aspects (awareness, perception and  behavior) – Do you know any of diseases, which could be  transmitted to human beings? – If yes, which disease, symptoms and do you know  how to avoid transmission?  – Do you know in your family or on your village any  case of disease, which could be originated in  animals or animal products? 
  • 27. Outline for upcoming field visit and application of tools Date: 17 June 2013 Small scale chicken slaughterhouse (1) – Questionnaire  – In depth interview – Checklist Chicken Farm (1) – Check list Group report to be prepared 
  • 28. Case Study example added value of an integrative (Eco health) approach Model of Hygienic Small Scale Poultry Slaughter House (SH) Chiang Mai ‐ Thailand Schedule: 17th June 2013 Contact: Suwit Chotinun (CMU)