0
EcoHealth approach to control of zoonotic emerging
infectious diseases in SE Asia: Sharing the experiences

Jeffrey Gilber...
Outline of talk

•

•
•

Introduction to ILRI (ILRAD/ILCA); CGIAR; CGIAR Research
Programmes (CRPs)
EcoHealth, OneHealth a...
ILRI
ILRI
CRP4

http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/crp4proposal_final_oct06_2011.pdf
What is health

•
•
•
•

absence of illness / disease
“complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the ...
Health – who is responsible

Animal
Health
DVMs

Human
Health
MDs
Interaction (1)

Animal
Health

Human
Health

Zoonoses; food safety; VPH
Interaction (2)

Emerging Disease Threats: SARS.. INFLUENZA …

Animal Human
Health Health
Zoonoses; food safety; VPH
Interaction (3)
Emerging Disease Threats

Neglected Tropical Diseases (rabies,
leptospirosis, brucellosis … )

Animal Huma...
Interaction (4)

Animal Human
Health Health
Ecosystem
Broader thinking needed

substantial challenge ahead - 9 billion by 2050
innovative approaches
We need to appreciate that ...
Broader thinking - OneHealth

Eco Health – One Health
•
•

One Health is the collaborative effort of multiple disciplines
...
Broader thinking EcoHealth
Eco Health – -One Health
• Ecosystem approaches to public health issues acknowledge the complex...
Compare / Contrast

v OneHealth

• Definitions open to debate: range from quite rigid to
very flexible; issues of branding...
Inter-connectivity of EcoHealth

Eco Health – One Health
Inter-connectivity of EcoHealth

Eco Health – One Health

From Wilcox & Colwell, EcoHealth journal 2005
Compare / Contrast

Eco Health – One Health

One Health

Eco Health
Complexity focus
System thinking
Pioneered by IDRC

On...
Important OneHealth Case-study in Mongolia
EcoZD: Location of Project Activities

Increased risk of brucellosis and
toxoplasmosis
EcoHealth Resource Centre at Chiang...
Challenges & Solutions
Challenges
• Accepting novel ‘EcoHealth’
paradigm and fostering transdisciplinary collaboration (so...
Yunnan - China

Brucellosis
• Emerging disease in
southern China
• Coordination by YAGAS
• Use of participatory
tools
• Co...
Cambodia

Zoonotic diarrhoea
• Coordination by NGO
(CelAgrid)
• Use of participatory
tools (MoH)
• Combined fieldwork
Indonesia

Rabies in Bali
• Ecological focus:
• Behaviour
• Demography
• Fecundity
• Socio-cultural
Lao PDR

Priority Pig zoonoses
• 5 zoonoses & 3 nonzoonoses
• Development of
existing MoH/MAF
partnership
Joint Thai-Vietnamese team

Poulty slaughterhouse hygiene
• Engage community
• Discuss cost-benefits
• Policy engagement a...
Viet Nam

Leptospirosis
• First joint MoH/DAH
activity with joint
fieldwork
• Participatory tools
applied
• Behaviour chan...
EcoHealth Resource Centres

Chiang Mai & Gadja Mada Universities
• Academic environment
• Multi-faculty training
• Multi-f...
Personal Reflections : Högertrafikomläggningen
Personal Reflections : Oil tankers
EcoZD Project
For more information about the EcoZD project, please
visit:www.ilri.org/ecozdhttp://ecozd.wikispaces.com/
ww...
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EcoHealth approach to control of zoonotic emerging infectious diseases in Southeast Asia: Sharing the experiences

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Presented by Jeff Gilbert at the second scientific Asia and the Pacific symposium on "Sustainable diets: Human nutrition and livestock", Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, 21 August 2013.

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Transcript of "EcoHealth approach to control of zoonotic emerging infectious diseases in Southeast Asia: Sharing the experiences"

  1. 1. EcoHealth approach to control of zoonotic emerging infectious diseases in SE Asia: Sharing the experiences Jeffrey Gilbert MD DVM EcoZD* coordinator 2nd Scientific Asia and the Pacific Symposium on Sustainable Diets: Human Nutrition and Livestock, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, 21 August 2013 *Ecosystem Approaches to the Better Management of Zoonotic Emerging Infectious Diseases in SE Asia
  2. 2. Outline of talk • • • Introduction to ILRI (ILRAD/ILCA); CGIAR; CGIAR Research Programmes (CRPs) EcoHealth, OneHealth and ‘OneHealth versus EcoHealth’ ILRI project : Ecosystem Approaches to the Better Management of Zoonotic Emerging Infectious Diseases in SE Asia (EcoZD) - focus on learning and uptake of the approach (all teams focussed on zoonoses
  3. 3. ILRI
  4. 4. ILRI
  5. 5. CRP4 http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/crp4proposal_final_oct06_2011.pdf
  6. 6. What is health • • • • absence of illness / disease “complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity””(WHO Constitution, 1967) Alma Ata Declaration: “ he extent to which an individual or group is able, on the T one hand, to realize aspirations and satisfy needs; and, on the other hand, to change or cope with the environment”(WHO, 1978) Prerequisites for Health – “The fundamental conditions and resources for health are: peace, shelter, education, food, income, a stable eco-system, sustainable resources, social justice, and equity.” (International Conference on Health Promotion, Ottawa, 1986)
  7. 7. Health – who is responsible Animal Health DVMs Human Health MDs
  8. 8. Interaction (1) Animal Health Human Health Zoonoses; food safety; VPH
  9. 9. Interaction (2) Emerging Disease Threats: SARS.. INFLUENZA … Animal Human Health Health Zoonoses; food safety; VPH
  10. 10. Interaction (3) Emerging Disease Threats Neglected Tropical Diseases (rabies, leptospirosis, brucellosis … ) Animal Human Health Health Zoonoses; food safety; VPH
  11. 11. Interaction (4) Animal Human Health Health Ecosystem
  12. 12. Broader thinking needed substantial challenge ahead - 9 billion by 2050 innovative approaches We need to appreciate that we are in a inter-connected world – ecology / social sciences Vets & Medics only part of OneHealth One Health & Ecosystem Health (EcoHealth): neither have ‘strict’ standardised definitions; various interpretations & language issues
  13. 13. Broader thinking - OneHealth Eco Health – One Health • • One Health is the collaborative effort of multiple disciplines working locally, nationally, and globally, to address critical challenges and attain optimal health for people, domestic animals, wildlife, and our environment One Health Commission (http://www.onehealthcommission.org/ ) • The One Health concept is a worldwide strategy for expanding interdisciplinary collaborations and communications in all aspects of health care for humans and animals. One Health Initiative (http://onehealthinitiative.com/)
  14. 14. Broader thinking EcoHealth Eco Health – -One Health • Ecosystem approaches to public health issues acknowledge the complex, systemic nature of public health and environmental issues, and the inadequacy of conventional methodologies for dealing with them. David Walter-Toews, University of Guelph • The Ecohealth approach focuses above all on the place of human beings within their environment. It recognizes that there are inextricable links between humans and their biophysical, social, and economic environments, and that these links are reflected in a population's state of health. International Development Research Centre (IDRC) • EcoHealth is an emerging field of study researching how changes in the earth’s ecoszstems affect human health. It has many prospects. EcoHealth examines changes in the biological, physical, social and economic environments and relates these changes to human health. Wikipedia.
  15. 15. Compare / Contrast v OneHealth • Definitions open to debate: range from quite rigid to very flexible; issues of branding • One-Health – biomedical focus: human + animal + wildlife; • One-Health: focus on communicable diseases • One-Health: operational / strategy • EcoHealth: environment & socio-economic aspects – pioneered outside ‘traditional’ health • EcoHealth: communicable & non-communicable diseases (dioxin; heavy metal toxicity) • Eco-Health: academic / research / complexity
  16. 16. Inter-connectivity of EcoHealth Eco Health – One Health
  17. 17. Inter-connectivity of EcoHealth Eco Health – One Health From Wilcox & Colwell, EcoHealth journal 2005
  18. 18. Compare / Contrast Eco Health – One Health One Health Eco Health Complexity focus System thinking Pioneered by IDRC One Health Schwabe‘s One Medicine One world/One Medicine More quantitative Integrated approach ‘Bottom Up’ Vets, Medics, Eco health epidemiologists, ecologists, social scientists, Adapted from indigenous philosophers,Karen Morison, University of Guelph Veterinarians, medics, some ecologists Currently institutionalized Rather ‘Top down’
  19. 19. Important OneHealth Case-study in Mongolia
  20. 20. EcoZD: Location of Project Activities Increased risk of brucellosis and toxoplasmosis EcoHealth Resource Centre at Chiang Mai University Prevalence of priority pig zoonoses Hygiene in small-scale poultry slaughterhouses (2 countries) Leptospirosis in community and abattoirs Zoonotic causes of acute diarrhoea Rabies control and prevention EcoHealth Resource Centre at Gadjah Mada University
  21. 21. Challenges & Solutions Challenges • Accepting novel ‘EcoHealth’ paradigm and fostering transdisciplinary collaboration (some countries rigid mechanism including financial mechanisms) Solutions 5 year project cycle assisted, learning by doing approach gives first-hand experience using country priorities not donor ones Plans for all countries to disseminate approach and findings to research community, policy makers and communities • Limited capacity within disciplines eg proposal writing, epidemiology, dissemination (journal articles, policy, IEC) Mentoring by ILRI researchers & technical experts provided real-time suppport according to needs;EcoHealth(One Health) Resource Centres for regional training and advocacy • Competition with other projects/initiatives/’paradigm (One Health) Teams/members were encouraged to be part of other initiatives; some team members drafted & submitted multi-country proposal to APEIR • Sustainability of EcoHealth (One Health) approach Ownership by teams: they chose the priority and conducted the research Further funding cycle(s) essential: 10+ years to institutionalise
  22. 22. Yunnan - China Brucellosis • Emerging disease in southern China • Coordination by YAGAS • Use of participatory tools • Combined dissemination at national level
  23. 23. Cambodia Zoonotic diarrhoea • Coordination by NGO (CelAgrid) • Use of participatory tools (MoH) • Combined fieldwork
  24. 24. Indonesia Rabies in Bali • Ecological focus: • Behaviour • Demography • Fecundity • Socio-cultural
  25. 25. Lao PDR Priority Pig zoonoses • 5 zoonoses & 3 nonzoonoses • Development of existing MoH/MAF partnership
  26. 26. Joint Thai-Vietnamese team Poulty slaughterhouse hygiene • Engage community • Discuss cost-benefits • Policy engagement at central level (DLD)
  27. 27. Viet Nam Leptospirosis • First joint MoH/DAH activity with joint fieldwork • Participatory tools applied • Behaviour change in the researchers!
  28. 28. EcoHealth Resource Centres Chiang Mai & Gadja Mada Universities • Academic environment • Multi-faculty training • Multi-faculty research • Future OH/EH resource for the SE Asia region
  29. 29. Personal Reflections : Högertrafikomläggningen
  30. 30. Personal Reflections : Oil tankers
  31. 31. EcoZD Project For more information about the EcoZD project, please visit:www.ilri.org/ecozdhttp://ecozd.wikispaces.com/ www.ilriasia.wordpress.com/tag/ecozd Email: J.Gilbert@cgiar.org for OH-EH resources
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