Natalie Carter, Cate Dewey, Delia Grace, Ben Lukuyu and Kees deLange
Presented at the Global Development Symposium, Guelph...
 Introduction
 Challenges
 Objectives and methods
 Results - diets
 Summary
Outline
Photo credit: ILRI and sendacow.o...
Study area
Photo credit: C. Dewey, N. Carter, and map Shoor Safaris
Photo credit: N. Carter and ILRI
Dewey et al. 2011
Smallholder pig sales
Pig/pork industry challenges
 Lack of feed – seasonal
 Lack of knowledge
 Human/pig competition
 High cost
 Low avera...
Objectives
 Local feedstuffs - nutrient value and availability
 Pigs’ nutritional needs
 Develop balanced least – cost ...
 58 samples - 17 feedstuffs
 Literature – 17 feedstuffs
 Dry matter, crude protein, fat, fibre,
calcium, phosphorous
 ...
Local feedstuffs
Photo credit: C. Dewey and N. Carter
Local feedstuffs
Photo credit: N. Carter
Pigs’ nutritional needs
and diet formulation
 The National Research Council (NRC 2012) model
 Published indigenous pig g...
Dry season diet - least-cost
(% of dry matter)
Wilted cassava
leaf
17
Fresh cattle
blood
3.7
Maize flour
75.6
Sun-
dried
f...
Dry season diet - no human food
(as % of dry matter)
Wilted
cassava leaf,
20
Fresh cattle
blood, 38.4
Grist mill
waste, 35...
Fresh cattle
blood
29.1
Sun-dried fish
5.4Sweet
potato vine
20.0
Maize flour
45.0
Salt
0.3
Wet season diet – least cost wi...
Wet season diet – no human food
(as % of dry matter)
Maize brewers
waste
2.3
Grist mill
waste
3.0
Fresh cattle
blood
54.3
...
Photo credit: doomsteaddiner.org , ILRI, C. Dewey ,and N. Carter
References
Dewey, C.E., Wohlegemut, J.M., Levy, M., and Mutua, F.K., 2011. The impact of political crisis on smallholder p...
Acknowledgements
 Protein and lysine sources: blood, sun-dried fish,
cassava leaf, sweet potato vine, and forages/weeds
(Amaranthus sp., B...
Development of balanced diets using local feeds for smallholder Kenyan pigs: Implications for livelihoods, human health an...
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Development of balanced diets using local feeds for smallholder Kenyan pigs: Implications for livelihoods, human health and gender

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Poster by Natalie Carter, Cate Dewey, Delia Grace, Ben Lukuyu and Kees de Lange at the Global Development Symposium, Guelph, Canada, 6 May 2014.

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Development of balanced diets using local feeds for smallholder Kenyan pigs: Implications for livelihoods, human health and gender

  1. 1. Natalie Carter, Cate Dewey, Delia Grace, Ben Lukuyu and Kees deLange Presented at the Global Development Symposium, Guelph, Canada, 6 May 2014
  2. 2.  Introduction  Challenges  Objectives and methods  Results - diets  Summary Outline Photo credit: ILRI and sendacow.org.uk
  3. 3. Study area Photo credit: C. Dewey, N. Carter, and map Shoor Safaris
  4. 4. Photo credit: N. Carter and ILRI
  5. 5. Dewey et al. 2011 Smallholder pig sales
  6. 6. Pig/pork industry challenges  Lack of feed – seasonal  Lack of knowledge  Human/pig competition  High cost  Low average daily gain  Small litters  Sold at low weight  Butchers need 30kg pigs  Waste e.g. blood, overripe fruit  Diets are needed Photo credit: ILRI and C. Dewey
  7. 7. Objectives  Local feedstuffs - nutrient value and availability  Pigs’ nutritional needs  Develop balanced least – cost diets Photo credit: N. Carter
  8. 8.  58 samples - 17 feedstuffs  Literature – 17 feedstuffs  Dry matter, crude protein, fat, fibre, calcium, phosphorous  Digestible energy estimated (NRC 2012)  Lysine approximated from CP and Lysine: CP similar feed Feedstuffs’ nutritional value Photo credit: N. Carter
  9. 9. Local feedstuffs Photo credit: C. Dewey and N. Carter
  10. 10. Local feedstuffs Photo credit: N. Carter
  11. 11. Pigs’ nutritional needs and diet formulation  The National Research Council (NRC 2012) model  Published indigenous pig growth performance data  Growth observed in indigenous Kenyan pigs  A least-cost diet formulation system  Based on Skinner et al (2012)  34 ingredient choices with $/kg  Seasonal availability – 3 seasons Photo credit: C. Dewey
  12. 12. Dry season diet - least-cost (% of dry matter) Wilted cassava leaf 17 Fresh cattle blood 3.7 Maize flour 75.6 Sun- dried fish 3.2 Salt 0.3
  13. 13. Dry season diet - no human food (as % of dry matter) Wilted cassava leaf, 20 Fresh cattle blood, 38.4 Grist mill waste, 35.3 Maize brewers waste, 5.8 Salt, 0.3
  14. 14. Fresh cattle blood 29.1 Sun-dried fish 5.4Sweet potato vine 20.0 Maize flour 45.0 Salt 0.3 Wet season diet – least cost with SPV (as % of dry matter)
  15. 15. Wet season diet – no human food (as % of dry matter) Maize brewers waste 2.3 Grist mill waste 3.0 Fresh cattle blood 54.3 Sweet potato vine 20 Wilted cassava leaf 20 Salt 0.3
  16. 16. Photo credit: doomsteaddiner.org , ILRI, C. Dewey ,and N. Carter
  17. 17. References Dewey, C.E., Wohlegemut, J.M., Levy, M., and Mutua, F.K., 2011. The impact of political crisis on smallholder pig farmers in Western Kenya, 2006–2008, Journal of Modern African Studies,49, 3, 455–473. Kagira, J.J, P.W.N. Kanyari, N. Maingi, S.M. Githigia, J.C. Ng’ang’a, and J. Karuga. 2010. Characteristics of the smallholder free-range pig production system in western Kenya. Trop Anim Health Prod 42 865-873. Mutua, F.K., C. Dewey, S. Arimi, W. Ogara, M. Levyand E. Schelling. 2012. A description of local pig feeding systems in village smallholder farms of Western Kenya, Trop Anim Health Prod, 44, 1157–1162. Carter, N., Dewey, C.E., Mutua, F.K., de Lange, C., Grace, D. Average daily gain of local pigs on rural and peri-urban smallholder farms in two districts of western Kenya. Trop Anim Health Prod 45 (7) 1533-1538. Feedipedia. Animal Feed Resources Information System. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Centre de Cooperation Interntionale en Recherche Agronomique pour let Developpement 9CIRAD), Associations Francaise de Zootechnie (AFZ) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). www.feedipedia.org. National Research Council of the National Academies. 2012. Nutrient Requirements of Swine (2012). The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. Skinner SA, Weersink A, and deLange CF,2012. Impact of Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles (DDGS) on Ration and Fertilizer Costs of Swine. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics 60: 335–356.
  18. 18. Acknowledgements
  19. 19.  Protein and lysine sources: blood, sun-dried fish, cassava leaf, sweet potato vine, and forages/weeds (Amaranthus sp., Bidens pilosa, Commelina africana L)  Highest fat : avocado  Highest digestible energy: avocado  Highest calcium source: amaranth  Highest fibre very high: cattle rumen contents, forages/weeds Feedstuffs’ nutritional value continued

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