Detection of transboundary animal diseases using participatory disease surveillance in Plateau state, Nigeria
DETECTION OF TRANSBOUNDARY ANIMAL DISEASESUSING PARTICIPATORY DISEASE SURVEILLANCE INPLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA Mwapu Dika NDAHI, Ayi Vandi Kwaghe, Joy Gararawa Usman, Samuel Anzaku, Alim Bulus, Jude Angbashim. PENAPH Technical Workshop, Chiang Mai, Thailand 11th – 13th December, 2012
OutlineIntroductionObjectivesMethodologyResults and DiscussionWhat went well and why?What did not and why?Conclusion
IntroductionTransboundary Animal Diseases (TADs) areepidemic diseases which are highly contagious andhave the potential for very rapid spread, irrespectiveof national borders.These diseases cause a high morbidity and mortalityin susceptible animal populations causing serious socio-economic and possibly public health consequences.Their economic importance is a major constraint ininternational trade.
Objectives To determine the presence or absence of TADs using PE methods in Plateau State To improve the detection & reporting of TADs in Nigeria using PDS.
MethodologyThe study was conducted in 35 villages from sixlocal government areas in the Northern senatorialzone of the statePDS Team – 3vets and 1 animal health workerPre-advocacy visits were conductedAll age groups of farmers and women wereinterviewed for more viable results.
Methodology cont’dThe following tools were used (a) Check list (b) Scoring and Ranking (c) Visualization
Data Analysis Data was analyzed as indicated in “A Manual for Participatory Disease Surveillance Practitioners: Introduction to participatory epidemiology and its application to highly pathogenic avian influenza participatory disease surveillance”.
Fig I: Livestock species and ranking based onpopulation in 35 villages in Plateau state Simple ranking 160 140 120 100 80 Simple ranking 60 40 20 0 Poultry Sheep Dogs Pigs Cattle Cats and goats
Table 1: Poultry diseases and their local names in35 villages of Plateau stateDiseases/ Infestation Local names in Hausa languageNewcastle Disease (ND) Farin kasha, Farin zawo, Zawo, Ro chowo (Berom language)Fowl pox KurajeChronic Respiratory Tari, MuraDisease (CRD)Lousiness KwarkwataCoccidiosis Kashin jinni
Fig II: Diseases of poultry and ranking usingPP in 35 villages of Plateau state Ranking using PP180160140120100 80 60 Ranking using PP 40 20 0 Newcastle Fowl pox CRD Lousiness Coccidiosis disease (ND)
Table 2: Diseases of Sheep and goats and theirlocal names in 35 villages of Plateau stateDiseases/ Infestaion Local names in Hausa/Fulani languages*Peste de Petit Ruminant Zawo, Mura, Zawo da(PPR) majina, Atini,Faciolosis Hanta, MasassakuHelminthosis Tsutsan cikiFoot rot Ciwon KafaMange MakenkeroCCPP Mura, TariTrypanosomosis Samore*Streptothricosis KirchiEctoparasitism Kaska, Kwarkwata
Fig III: Ranking of diseases of sheep and goats in35 villages of Plateau state Ranking usin PP, Matrix scoring350300250200150100 Ranking usin PP, Matrix scoring 50 0
Table 3: Diseases/Infestation of cattle and localnames in 35 villages of Plateau stateDiseases/ Infestation Local names in Hausa/Fulani languages*Foot and Mouth Mboru *Disease (FMD)Faciolosis Ciwon hanta, MasassakuContagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia Huhu(CBPP)Helminthosis ZawoDermatophylosis KirchiTrypanosomosis Samore*Lumpy skin disease Mbolo *Ectoparasitism (tick Kaskainfestation)
Fig IV: Diseases of cattle and ranking in 35villages of Plateau state Ranking using PP, Matrix scoring and DIMS160140120100 80 60 40 Ranking using PP, Matrix scoring and DIMS 20 0
Table 4: Diseases of pigs and their local namesin 35 villages of Plateau stateDiseases Local names in Hausa languageHelminthosis Ampul, Tsusan chikiLousiness KwarkwataAfrican Swine Fever Zazzabi/ciwon aladu(ASF)Cysticercosis _Mange _Diamond skin disease _
Fig V: Diseases of pigs and ranking in 35villages of Plateau state Ranking using PP, Matrix scoring, DIMS70 Ranking using PP, Matrix scoring60 7050 6040 5030 4020 3010 20 Ranking using PP, Matrix 0 10 Ranking usingDIMS scoring, PP, 0 Matrix scoring
Table V: Diseases of dogs and their local namesin 35 villages of Plateau stateDiseases/ Infestation Local names in Hausa languageRabies Huakan KareHelminthosis Tsusan ChikiMyiasis Tsusan JikiParvovirus enteritis _Ectoparasitism (lice and Kwarkwata, Kaskatick infestation)Mange _
Fig VI: Diseases of dogs and ranking in 35villages of Plateau state Ranking using PP, Matrix scoring, DIMS120100 80 60 40 20 Ranking using PP, Matrix scoring, DIMS 0
Transboundary animal diseases of livestockspecies in 35 villages of Plateau state Poultry: Newcastle Disease (ND) Sheep and goats: Peste de Petit Ruminant (PPR) Cattle: Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD). Pigs: ASF Dogs: Rabies
Challenges faced in livestock rearingChallenges faced by the farmers in these villagesinclude:DiseasesAccess to veterinary services.Drought during dry season.Predation of chicks by hawks.Lack of housing for local birds.Poverty still poses challenges in the use of veterinarydrugs and services by the farmers in these communities.
Table VI: Ethno-veterinary practices in the 35villages in Plateau stateSpecie Disease/symptom Local treatmentPoultry Newcastle Disease Cactus, Decoction of cactus + gautan kaji (a plant fruit in hausa language), Pepper in water. Fowl pox Use of palm oil on affected areas.Sheep and Goats Peste de Petit Ruminant Grounded Boaboa leaves (PPR). (kuka in Hausa language)+ Maize or guinea corn bran, orally. Mange Hawa (fish poison) in Hausa dialect, applying it on the Affected areas. Contagious ecthyma Mahogany oil + balm, rubbed on the affected area
Table VI: Ethno-veterinary practices in the 35 villages in Plateau stateSpecies Disease/Symptom Local tretmentSheep and goats Cough Lemon extract administered orally. Diarrhea kuka (boaboa leaves) grounded + potash, administer orally Loss of appetite Daddawan baso (Hausa dialect) made from locust bean seeds is given to increase appetite.Cattle Lumpy Skin Disease Branding. Fasciolosis Mahogany. Trypanosomosis Mahogany + salt + potash Swellings BrandingDogs Rabies Use of pia or cocoyam Myiasis / Helminthosis Ogogoro (locally brewed beer) administered orally
What went well?Commitment of the team (committed to the work, timeconscious and cooperative)Good relationship with fieldworkers (Animal healthworkers at the rural level)Know the livestock species kept and disease profileAbility to acquire disease status and season ofoccurrence in communities which gives information foreffective disease control
What went well? Cont’dIdentification and recognition of seasonaloccurrences - planning of intervention programmes(ND vaccination in rural poultry).Increase awareness on disease reporting in thegrassrootsExposure of Animal Health workers to PEExposure to most parts of the state, opportunity tomeet and interact with communities with differentethnic diversities
What went well? Cont’dPotential for private veterinary practice identifiedFederal Government intervention through Sanitarymandate VeterinarianProffer solution to some problems that farmers face(control of ND don’t buy sick chickens from the marketand introduce to your own) and other biosecuritymeasures.Enlightenment of farmers on zoonotic/notifiablediseases
What went well? Cont’dPictorial presentation of animal and their diseaseconditions elicits quick response from respondentsThe communities were receptive and cooperativePromises were not made to raise their expectation(Appraisal team are not decision makers!)
What did not go well?Inability to proffer immediate solutions to some oftheir problemsDifficult terrainHoarding of knowledge on traditional remediesInability to identify some of the trees and plantsused for ethno veterinary medicineDominance by opinion leaders
ConclusionPDS has revealed the presence of transboundaryanimal diseases in Plateau state.PDS has provided insight on the challenges facedby rural farmers in livestock rearing.PDS also revealed the existence ofethnoveterinary practices in rural areas and theneed for veterinary services.This study shows that there is a need for PDS to beintegrated into our surveillance system
Acknowledgement Early Detection Response Surveillance for Avian Influenza in Africa (EDRSAIA) International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) National Animal Disease Information and Surveillance, Nigeria (NADIS) Support Programme for National Action Plan for Avian Influenza (SPINAP)