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Delivering impact from African animal agriculture: The agriculture-mining conundrum of grass or brass; bread or stones
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Delivering impact from African animal agriculture: The agriculture-mining conundrum of grass or brass; bread or stones

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Presented by Yemi Akinbamijo and Jimmy W. Smith at the Crawford Fund annual conference on food security, Perth, Australia, 25-28 August 2013

Presented by Yemi Akinbamijo and Jimmy W. Smith at the Crawford Fund annual conference on food security, Perth, Australia, 25-28 August 2013

Published in Technology , Business
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  • IAR4D is underpinned on the Innovation platform
  • Eleven African countries are among the top ten global resource countries in at least one major mineral.
  • Shows picture of acid water from mine polluting rivers (south Africa)In Australia, the minerals sector uses less than 3% of national consumptive water.Water Quality & Pollution Quality concerns regarding mining’s use of water are more complex to assess. Mining operations must comply with environmental legislation that normally requires an assessment of potential environmental impacts, and a plan for mitigation or remediation of these impacts prior to a mine being permitted. Water discharged from mines during operations and following mine closure must also meet federal water quality standards
  • Mining impacts cab be both adverse or beneficial (left & right)Bullet 1 on left: Mining may adversely affect agriculture indirectly when workers switch from one industry to the other. Farmers may engage in artisanal mining seasonally, to supplement farm incomes, or leave farming for mining altogether.

Transcript

  • 1. Delivering impact from African animal agriculture: The agriculture-mining conundrum of grass or brass; bread or stones Yemi Akinbamijo Executive Director Jimmy Smith Director General& Crawford Fund annual conference on food security, Perth, Australia, 25-28 August 2013
  • 2. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 2 Outline • Innovation and the Livestock Sector in Africa – Significance and Challenges • Impacts of mining on agriculture (Grass vs. Brass) • Concluding Remarks
  • 3. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 3 Some Guiding Principles and Thoughts on Agriculture and Mining in Africa
  • 4. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 4 • Africa cannot and MUST not live in the past. Africa must look to the future. Late Dr Bingu Wa MUTHARIKA Chairman of the Assembly of the African Union and former President of the Republic of Malawi Thoughts on Food
  • 5. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 5 Thoughts on Food There is need for high political leadership to take bold decisions and follow up with the required actions to eradicate hunger so that all people in Africa can enjoy the most basic and fundamental of human rights – the right to food, and thus to existence and life. Jacques Diouf (2009) FAO Director-General
  • 6. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 6 Grass or Gold? “It is a challenge for the two sectors to coexist. Given the choice between a sector that employs 100,000 people or the capacity to feed 12 million people, I prefer the latter“ Jacqie Sultan Guinea's Agriculture Minister
  • 7. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 7 Africa Mining Vision “Transparent, equitable and optimal exploitation of mineral resources to underpin broad-based sustainable growth and socio-economic development”
  • 8. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 8 Changing landscape: no level playing fields
  • 9. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 9 Innovation Platforms as a Concept 9 Technological Constraints Infrastructural Constraints Institutional Constraints Food & Nutrition insecurity, environmental degradation & poverty Governance as an overarching factor Example of Nerica • Good technology • Spread is slowed down by non – availability of seeds
  • 10. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 10 Transporters Private Sector Farmers Extension Govt Innovation Systems End users Research Innovation Platform: Participation and Gainful Interaction
  • 11. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 11 • Major contributor to incomes especially in arid and semi-arid areas (about 80% of the land). • Employs about 50% of agricultural labour force • Contributes about 10% of GDP • Accounts for over 40% of agricultural GDP • It is the largest anthropometric user of land • However, sector receives < 2% of national budget allocation. Livestock Sector in Africa
  • 12. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 12 Estimated number of people involved in the pastoral economy in Africa: >100,000,000 Pastoral and Agro-pastoral Areas Senegal Mauritania Mali Burkina Faso Niger Nigeria Chad Sudan Eritrea Ethiopia Somalia Kenya Tanzania Algeria Cameroun Djibouti Uganda Morocco Libya Guinea
  • 13. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 13 Livestock systems are changing Need to understand how systems will change in the future: the target is moving! – To design more coherent and dynamic research and policy agenda that benefits the poor – To target investments more adequately – To bridge the technology adoption gap – Key drivers: Population increases, urbanisation, Market access, demand shifts and Climate change
  • 14. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 14 Country Mining Land Use USA 0.02-0.01 Canada 0.01 Peru 0.01 Brazil <0.45 Australia <0.26 Mining Land use as % of available land mass Source Paulo Riveiro de Santana, Ombudsman, Department Nacional de Produção Mineral, December, 2011
  • 15. Africa is hugely endowed in mineral resources Brown: 1 resource holding in top 1o globally : Orange >1 resource holding in top 10 globally
  • 16. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 16 "የየየየየ:የየ:የየ:የየየ: :" The child of the Nile (Abay) is thirsty - Ethiopian proverb The Unpalatable Oxymoron
  • 17. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 17 Conflict has arisen where: 1. Mining is perceived to be competing with agriculture and livestock grazing or other traditional land uses 2. Farmers have been displaced from mining areas and comparable land could not be purchased for them or farmers without land title were unjustly evicted Grass-Brass Land Challenge
  • 18. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 18 • Conflict has arisen when there is competition for use of water resources by agriculture and mining • Concerns about water use in mining relate to amount of water used, especially in areas with limited fresh water resources, and to changes in water quality due to mining activities. • Water quality is regulated by environmental legislation but capacity of developing countries to enforce this legislation is usually weak Grass-Brass Water Challenge …1/2
  • 19. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 19 • Current best practices of large-scale mines in Africa are less damaging to the environment than subsistence farming, poverty-related deforestation and communal grazing • Despite local allegations of water pollution, reputable studies have failed to demonstrate that large-scale mining practices are significantly damaging water quality. Grass-Brass Water Challenge …2/2
  • 20. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 20 • Worker Mobility: from Farmers to Miners • The discovery of large mineral deposits may lead to abandonment of farmland. Mining impacts on Agriculture…1/2 Mining can improve infrastructure for Agriculture e.g. • New roads constructed for mining operation improve market access • Rural road construction also improve agricultural wages & reduce transaction costs • Local processing of agricultural goods is enhanced by improved access to water, electrification, and improved sanitation.
  • 21. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 21 Corporate Social Responsibility may be deployed to support agriculture Newmont Ghana Gold’s Ahafo Agribusiness Growth Initiative (AGGI) has provided training to 1,368 farmers to increase agricultural productivity and farm business skills Mining impacts on Agriculture …2/2
  • 22. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 22 • The Land Grant Bill • Do we have ‘The Will’ • An International Council on Mining & Metals study suggests that mining complements agriculture and there are growing synergies between these sectors • In Argentina, the amount of land under cultivation in communities near mines increased between 2001 and 2007 despite mine construction and operation Lessons from the Past– The Will and The Bill
  • 23. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 23 Critical gaps identified – Tail piece • Transfer of knowledge and sharing of success stories – how to share with communities and learn from their experience? • More effective and endogenous assessments of vulnerability and adaptation, and need to retain experts • Need to strengthen national institutions so they can develop and use multistakeholder and all inclusive policy and formulation and implementation and information for decision-making at appropriate scales • Need to improve the institutional framework for environmental impact assessment and implementation
  • 24. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 24 • Livestock sector in Africa deserves greater attention than what is currently accorded to it • Systems are changing—need to understand how the system will change (foresight and visioning) and determine the outcomes we want • Dearth of information about impact of mining on agriculture, especially livestock sector in Africa. Major study AND ‘THE WILL’ on this subject needed • Don’t give the ‘fish’ (Corporate social responsibilities are limited in time and space) teach to fish – empowerment for resilience; investing in the future! Concluding Remarks
  • 25. Click to edit Master title styleClick to edit Master title style 25 Monitoring and Evaluation Agenda Setting Decision Making Policy Implementation Policy Formulation Policy Processes Civil Society Donors Cabinet Parliament Ministries Private Sector
  • 26. Post thesis Everything can wait but agriculture cannot wait! Jawaharlal Nehru Indian Statesman and First Prime Minister
  • 27. Thank You for Listening Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa www.fara-africa.org International livestock Research Institute www.ilri.org