Opportunities, Challenges and
Prospects for Dairy Goat
Improvement by the Poor: The
Kenyan Experience
Okeyo A. Mwai
Worksh...
Outline
• Introductory remarks
• Opportunities
• Prospects
• Challenges
• Conclusions
Introductory remarks
• Except for rinderpest eradication thro vaccination,
successful livestock improvement that does NOT
...
Opportunities
• Diverse genetic base created by
differential natural & artificial
selection (scope for improvement
and pov...
Prospects
• Huge potential for both within-breed
selection and cross-breeding
• Good crossbreeding needs to:
- start with ...
Why cross-breeding?
• New genetics is attractive
• Quick dramatic improvement so “ inspires”
• Triggers management improve...
Right design
• Appropriate targeting, sampling & targeting
• Organizational, institutional capacities
– Farmers capacity, ...
Components of a breeding
programme
Source; Philipsson et al., 2011
The FARM-Africa Goat Model - components
• Community-based and managed breed
improvement
Supported by
• Private veterinary ...
Beyond the Initial Supply of Breeding Stock: The
FARM Africa Dairy Goat Model
NEW BUCK STATION NEW BREEDING UNIT
GROUP BRE...
The Dispersed Nuclei Goat improvement design
NEW BUCK STATION NEW BREEDING UNIT
GROUP BREEDING UNIT
4 Females + 1 Buck
[Se...
FARM-Africa Goat Model
Tested in 4 countries over 19 years
Pressures for intensification/
specialisation
• External pressures in
smallholder systems
– Crop yields plateau
– Land hol...
Housing Forage
Farmer-managed breed
improvement
• Crossbreeding local
goats with Toggenburg
bucks in community-
managed buck
stations
• R...
Direct benefits – use of income
• Education
• House improvement
• Investment in farm
• Hospital bills
• Food
• Re-investme...
Direct benefits - products
• Milk F1 2-3 litres/day 6-8
mths lactation
• Milk F2 75% Togg 3-4
litres/day
• Selling surplus...
Impact – e.g. Mr Kinoti from Meru
Kenya
• Casual labourer
• Received two goats
• Buck keeper ->
• Now owns 2ha land
• Boug...
Example of a new type of farmers
organisation:Meru Goat Breeders Assoc’n
• Manage breeding
stock
• Breed registration
• Ma...
Options for MGBA financial viability
1. Increase prices of all
services
2. Increase members
3. Milk collection and
marketi...
Private veterinary system
• Farmers trained as
‘barefoot vets’
(CAHW’s) supplied by
veterinary assistants
running small dr...
Even the poorest can produce milk
for home and sale
How about special goat meat
meat cuts in super markets?
Performance Kenya1996-to-date
Item Meru Kitui
Bucks stations 162 in project area + 42+
Members 4870 930
Crossbreds 100,000...
• High mortality rates (> 7 %)
• Too small herd sizes or too large herds, but too
mobile
• High transaction costs associat...
Why is the Goat Model successful
• Addressed real need
• Inspiring ! (Fire from within)
• Locally appropriate approach
• S...
Some conclusions
• Design need to be appropriate with long term focus
• Most failures are organizational and institutional...
Thank you
Opportunities, challenges and prospects for dairy goat improvement by the poor: The Kenyan experience
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Opportunities, challenges and prospects for dairy goat improvement by the poor: The Kenyan experience

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Presented by Okeyo A. Mwai at the Workshop on Integrated Dairy Goat and Root Crop Production, ILRI Nairobi, 19 June 2013

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Opportunities, challenges and prospects for dairy goat improvement by the poor: The Kenyan experience

  1. 1. Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects for Dairy Goat Improvement by the Poor: The Kenyan Experience Okeyo A. Mwai Workshop on Integrated Dairy Goat and Root Crop Production in Tanzania ILRI, Nairobi, June 19-2013
  2. 2. Outline • Introductory remarks • Opportunities • Prospects • Challenges • Conclusions
  3. 3. Introductory remarks • Except for rinderpest eradication thro vaccination, successful livestock improvement that does NOT involve breed improvement is hard to find • Genetic improvement provide the building blocks, and offer huge potential, but: – the design must be right – adequate time and capacity • Dairy goat improvements in the region started > 60 years ago, but not much progress made so far! • Cross breeding Vs within-breed selection?
  4. 4. Opportunities • Diverse genetic base created by differential natural & artificial selection (scope for improvement and poverty reduction) • Demand for goat products high & increasing Good prices: US$300/goat youghurt: US$ 1.1/0.25litre • Several admix populations available, including those with exotic commercial breeds composition • Genomic tools & ICT available • Huge existing results & knowledge, systems to tap into http://dagris.ilri.cgiar.org
  5. 5. Prospects • Huge potential for both within-breed selection and cross-breeding • Good crossbreeding needs to: - start with good foundations - focus on the right traits (meat& milk) - have right design - practice selection alongside crossbreeding
  6. 6. Why cross-breeding? • New genetics is attractive • Quick dramatic improvement so “ inspires” • Triggers management improvements to support (farmer-managed) breed improvement • Virtuous spiral breed improvement-> management improvement->improved production (money)>breed improvement- >management improvement and so on…. • But many wrong crossbreeding designs are seen every where!
  7. 7. Right design • Appropriate targeting, sampling & targeting • Organizational, institutional capacities – Farmers capacity, empowerment – Policy makers-supportive policies • Sustainability: – technical considerations (the right science & all disciplines) – The associated value chain development (market & input services etc)
  8. 8. Components of a breeding programme Source; Philipsson et al., 2011
  9. 9. The FARM-Africa Goat Model - components • Community-based and managed breed improvement Supported by • Private veterinary system • Group structure to manage all inputs • Breeders’ Association to manage breeding • All key inputs in hands of farmers
  10. 10. Beyond the Initial Supply of Breeding Stock: The FARM Africa Dairy Goat Model NEW BUCK STATION NEW BREEDING UNIT GROUP BREEDING UNIT 4 Females + 1 Buck [Several Dispersed] OFFSPRING 50%M 50%F BUCKS DOES Sold Weaned Surplus Surplus 2% 10% 10%5% NEW BUCK STATION NEW BREEDING UNIT GROUP BREEDING UNIT 4 Females + 1 Buck [Several Dispersed] OFFSPRING 50%M 50%F BUCKS DOES Sold Weaned Surplus Surplus 2% 10% 10%5%
  11. 11. The Dispersed Nuclei Goat improvement design NEW BUCK STATION NEW BREEDING UNIT GROUP BREEDING UNIT 4 Females + 1 Buck [Several Dispersed] OFFSPRING 50%M 50%F BUCKS DOES Sold Weaned Surplus Surplus 2% 10% 10%5% NEW BUCK STATION NEW BREEDING UNIT GROUP BREEDING UNIT 4 Females + 1 Buck [Several Dispersed] OFFSPRING 50%M 50%F BUCKS DOES Sold Weaned Surplus Surplus 2% 10% 10%5% NEW BUCK STATION NEW BREEDING UNIT GROUP BREEDING UNIT 4 Females + 1 Buck [Several Dispersed] OFFSPRING 50%M 50%F BUCKS DOES Sold Weaned Surplus Surplus 2% 10% 10%5% NEW BUCK STATION NEW BREEDING UNIT GROUP BREEDING UNIT 4 Females + 1 Buck [Several Dispersed] OFFSPRING 50%M 50%F BUCKS DOES Sold Weaned Surplus Surplus 2% 10% 10%5% NEW BUCK STATION NEW BREEDING UNIT GROUP BREEDING UNIT 4 Females + 1 Buck [Several Dispersed] OFFSPRING 50%M 50%F BUCKS DOES Sold Weaned Surplus Surplus 2% 10% 10%5% NEW BUCK STATION NEW BREEDING UNIT GROUP BREEDING UNIT 4 Females + 1 Buck [Several Dispersed] OFFSPRING 50%M 50%F BUCKS DOES Sold Weaned Surplus Surplus 2% 10% 10%5% NEW BUCK STATION NEW BREEDING UNIT GROUP BREEDING UNIT 4 Females + 1 Buck [Several Dispersed] OFFSPRING 50%M 50%F BUCKS DOES Sold Weaned Surplus Surplus 2% 10% 10%5% NEW BUCK STATION NEW BREEDING UNIT GROUP BREEDING UNIT 4 Females + 1 Buck [Several Dispersed] OFFSPRING 50%M 50%F BUCKS DOES Sold Weaned Surplus Surplus 2% 10% 10%5% NEW BUCK STATION NEW BREEDING UNIT GROUP BREEDING UNIT 4 Females + 1 Buck [Several Dispersed] OFFSPRING 50%M 50%F BUCKS DOES Sold Weaned Surplus Surplus 2% 10% 10%5% NEW BUCK STATION NEW BREEDING UNIT GROUP BREEDING UNIT 4 Females + 1 Buck [Several Dispersed] OFFSPRING 50%M 50%F BUCKS DOES Sold Weaned Surplus Surplus 2% 10% 10%5% NEW BUCK STATION NEW BREEDING UNIT GROUP BREEDING UNIT 4 Females + 1 Buck [Several Dispersed] OFFSPRING 50%M 50%F BUCKS DOES Sold Weaned Surplus Surplus 2% 10% 10%5% NEW BUCK STATION NEW BREEDING UNIT GROUP BREEDING UNIT 4 Females + 1 Buck [Several Dispersed] OFFSPRING 50%M 50%F BUCKS DOES Sold Weaned Surplus Surplus 2% 10% 10%5% FARMER ORG.
  12. 12. FARM-Africa Goat Model Tested in 4 countries over 19 years
  13. 13. Pressures for intensification/ specialisation • External pressures in smallholder systems – Crop yields plateau – Land holdings shrink and fragment – Cash crop prices stagnate/decline – Unreliable support services to cattle – =Huge desire by farmers to start intensive goat production
  14. 14. Housing Forage
  15. 15. Farmer-managed breed improvement • Crossbreeding local goats with Toggenburg bucks in community- managed buck stations • Replacement bucks bred from group managed breeding units
  16. 16. Direct benefits – use of income • Education • House improvement • Investment in farm • Hospital bills • Food • Re-investment in goat enterprise
  17. 17. Direct benefits - products • Milk F1 2-3 litres/day 6-8 mths lactation • Milk F2 75% Togg 3-4 litres/day • Selling surplus milk • Goats houses – manure, urine, waste feed –> crop land some farmers -> export veg out-growers • Local slaughter sale meat
  18. 18. Impact – e.g. Mr Kinoti from Meru Kenya • Casual labourer • Received two goats • Buck keeper -> • Now owns 2ha land • Bought oxen for contract ploughing • Daughters to school • Sons starting business in town
  19. 19. Example of a new type of farmers organisation:Meru Goat Breeders Assoc’n • Manage breeding stock • Breed registration • Market breeding stock • Organise goat shows & training
  20. 20. Options for MGBA financial viability 1. Increase prices of all services 2. Increase members 3. Milk collection and marketing 4. Milk processing 5. Goat slaughterhouse
  21. 21. Private veterinary system • Farmers trained as ‘barefoot vets’ (CAHW’s) supplied by veterinary assistants running small drug shops • Backstopped by qualified private veterinarian
  22. 22. Even the poorest can produce milk for home and sale How about special goat meat meat cuts in super markets?
  23. 23. Performance Kenya1996-to-date Item Meru Kitui Bucks stations 162 in project area + 42+ Members 4870 930 Crossbreds 100,000+ Breeding units 128 No households (direct) 8,235 ? No of upgrade & purebred Toggenburgs 54000 4504
  24. 24. • High mortality rates (> 7 %) • Too small herd sizes or too large herds, but too mobile • High transaction costs associated with inputs, breeding, access t animal health & market services • Low incentives to invest in technology (AI) • Poor supportive organizational & institutional frameworks to support performance recording • Undeveloped value chains Challenges
  25. 25. Why is the Goat Model successful • Addressed real need • Inspiring ! (Fire from within) • Locally appropriate approach • Scale (small (25 group member units so is manageable) • Comprehensive/synchronised services • Limited continuing external inputs • Financially viable (encourage savings)
  26. 26. Some conclusions • Design need to be appropriate with long term focus • Most failures are organizational and institutional • Policy need to be supportive • Flexibility is needed (it does have to be a purebreed so long as it produces adequate milk, grows fasta nd is well adapted) • National & regional networks needed to ensure: – sustainable improvement (effective breeding population size) – Community of practice – exchange of breeding stock/ideas • Selection, formal genetic evaluation and farmer organization necessary • Business approach/model for delivery of dairy goat genetics needed
  27. 27. Thank you
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