Crop residue use in crop-livestock farms challenges & options of mulching in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia 5th World C...
mixed systems & SLP www.vslp.org   Mixed systems  = 2/3 population + food + value chains (Herrero et al. 2010) Biomass tra...
objectives D escribe  crop residue use  in diverse mixed systems  I dentify  main challenges  of mulching  L ook for  opti...
crop residue use  CA ideal situation http://www.iconpot.com http://www.openclipart.org
crop residue use  mixed crop-livestock farms $$ http://www.openclipart.org http://www.how-to-draw-funny-cartoons.com http:...
working ideas C R : much more than mulch O ffer (intensification) & demand (pressure) matter O ptions need to include loca...
site & village selection site : agri. intensification & market village : market & road access
selected sites after Valbuena et al. submitted Pot. pressure on biomass HIGH MEDIUM LOW Country  India Bangla. Kenya Ethio...
potential biomass pressure after Valbuena et al. submitted M-E1 H-B L-N1 H-I1 L-NG L-N2 L-Z L-MW M-E2 M-I2 L-MZ H-K Groupi...
land & animals M-E1 H-B L-N1 H-I1 L-NG L-N2 L-Z L-MW M-E2 M-I2 L-MZ H-K land & livestock; livelihood for > ½ farms
income & production M-E1 H-B L-N1 H-I1 L-NG L-N2 L-Z L-MW M-E2 M-I2 L-MZ H-K Range of agriculture  & self-consumption Extr...
CR more than mulch: cereals after Valbuena et al. submitted sites 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% H-I1 H-B H-K M-E2 M-I2 M-E1 L-Z ...
  CR more than mulch: legume H-K L-N1 % sold % fed % others L-NG L-N2 Legume residue high value or good  for cooking (H-K)...
trends last 10yrs Overall increase of CR use as fuel & stall feed Increase left/mulch key sites: irrigation & fertilizers ...
CR as feed after Valbuena et al. submitted sites H-I1 H-B H-K M-E2 M-I2 M-E1 L-Z L-MZ L-N1 L-NG L-MW L-N2 0% 20% 40% 60% 8...
feed shortages 0 2 4 6 8 10 crop residues green fodder grazing  sites H-I1 H-B H-K M-E2 M-I2 M-E1 L-Z L-MZ L-N1 L-NG L-MW ...
intensification matters after Valbuena et al. submitted M-ET1 H-BD L-NE1 H-IN1 L-NG L-NE2 L-ZW L-MW M-ET2 M-IN2 L-MZ H-KN ...
other CA-related practices M-E1 H-B L-N1 H-I1 L-NG L-N2 L-Z L-MW M-E2 M-I2 L-MZ H-K > ½ area is tilled by animal; but also...
results show that: CR are short-term resources: feed & Co.  CR to mulch with lower pressure (very ↑ production; or ↑ produ...
work in progress  household diversity  linking better socio-economic, biophysical & institutional  stakeholder involvement...
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Crop residue use in crop-livestock farms: Challenges and options of mulching in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia

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Presented by Diego Valbuena, Olaf Erenstein, Sabine Homann, Tahirou Abdoulaye, Alan Duncan, Bruno Gerard and Nils Teufel at the 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture and the 3rd Farming System Design Conference, Brisbane, Australia, 26-29 September 2011.

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Crop residue use in crop-livestock farms: Challenges and options of mulching in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia

  1. 1. Crop residue use in crop-livestock farms challenges & options of mulching in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture Brisbane, Australia, 26-29 September 2011 Diego Valbuena Olaf Erenstein Sabine Homann Tahirou Abdoulaye Alan Duncan Bruno Gérard Nils Teufel
  2. 2. mixed systems & SLP www.vslp.org Mixed systems = 2/3 population + food + value chains (Herrero et al. 2010) Biomass trade-offs : immediate demands & soil sustainability SLP : Bring livestock research on the agenda + links CGIAR Current project: crop residues use in mixed systems
  3. 3. objectives D escribe crop residue use in diverse mixed systems I dentify main challenges of mulching L ook for options related to mulching
  4. 4. crop residue use CA ideal situation http://www.iconpot.com http://www.openclipart.org
  5. 5. crop residue use mixed crop-livestock farms $$ http://www.openclipart.org http://www.how-to-draw-funny-cartoons.com http://coloring-drawing.com www.clipartof.com http://www.iconpot.com
  6. 6. working ideas C R : much more than mulch O ffer (intensification) & demand (pressure) matter O ptions need to include local specificities
  7. 7. site & village selection site : agri. intensification & market village : market & road access
  8. 8. selected sites after Valbuena et al. submitted Pot. pressure on biomass HIGH MEDIUM LOW Country India Bangla. Kenya Ethiopia India Ethiopia Zimb. Mozam. Niger Nigeria Malawi Niger Site ID H-I1 H-B H-K M-E2 M-I2 M-E1 L-Z L-MZ L-N1 L-NG L-MW L-N2 Location Karnal Dinajpur Kakamega Nekemte Rajasthan Kobo Nykayi Changara Fakara Kano Mzimba Maradi Symbol Market access +++ + + ++ + ++ + ++ + + +++ + ++ Intensification +++ ++ ++ + + + + + + ++ ++ + Agro-ecology semi-arid (irrigated) humid (irrigated) highlands highlands semi-arid semi-arid semi-arid semi-arid semi-arid semi-arid semi-arid semi-arid Rainfall 750 2000 1650 1050 650 700 600 650 500 800 700 600 Main crops wheat-rice rice maize, beans maize, teff maize sorghum, teff maize maize, millet, sorghum millet, cowpea sorgh. maize.gnt cpea maize millet, sorghum, cowpea Livestock buffalo cattle cattle goat cattle-dairy cattle cattle/buf goat cattle cattle cattle goats cattle shoats cattle shoats cattle goats cattle shoats
  9. 9. potential biomass pressure after Valbuena et al. submitted M-E1 H-B L-N1 H-I1 L-NG L-N2 L-Z L-MW M-E2 M-I2 L-MZ H-K Grouping sites: pop. & livestock densities
  10. 10. land & animals M-E1 H-B L-N1 H-I1 L-NG L-N2 L-Z L-MW M-E2 M-I2 L-MZ H-K land & livestock; livelihood for > ½ farms
  11. 11. income & production M-E1 H-B L-N1 H-I1 L-NG L-N2 L-Z L-MW M-E2 M-I2 L-MZ H-K Range of agriculture & self-consumption Extremes in S. Asia
  12. 12. CR more than mulch: cereals after Valbuena et al. submitted sites 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% H-I1 H-B H-K M-E2 M-I2 M-E1 L-Z L-MZ L-N1 L-NG L-MW L-N2 other traded left/mulch feed ↓ feed ↑ mulch ↑ feed, ↓ mulch NG: feed-fuel MW: feed-mulch
  13. 13. CR more than mulch: legume H-K L-N1 % sold % fed % others L-NG L-N2 Legume residue high value or good for cooking (H-K). No mulching. In Southern Africa not mentioned.
  14. 14. trends last 10yrs Overall increase of CR use as fuel & stall feed Increase left/mulch key sites: irrigation & fertilizers Increase of collection/privatisation of CR in ET % villages H-I1 H-B H-K M-E2 M-I2 M-E1 L-Z L-MZ L-N1 L-NG L-MW L-N2 increase fuel - 71 100 100 - 63 - - 100 88 - 57 stall feed 63 100 88 100 38 88 60 88 86 100 - 71 left/mulch 63 88 38 0 0 0 - 40 57 - 75 - decrease left/mulch 0 13 63 88 25 100 - 20 43 - 13 -
  15. 15. CR as feed after Valbuena et al. submitted sites H-I1 H-B H-K M-E2 M-I2 M-E1 L-Z L-MZ L-N1 L-NG L-MW L-N2 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% ↑ feed: M & H- sites ↑ feed sources
  16. 16. feed shortages 0 2 4 6 8 10 crop residues green fodder grazing sites H-I1 H-B H-K M-E2 M-I2 M-E1 L-Z L-MZ L-N1 L-NG L-MW L-N2 M-sites & West Africa: ↑ pressure on feed
  17. 17. intensification matters after Valbuena et al. submitted M-ET1 H-BD L-NE1 H-IN1 L-NG L-NE2 L-ZW L-MW M-ET2 M-IN2 L-MZ H-KN ↑ pop: ↑ intensity (area) H ↑ pop: ↓ communal land ↑ pop ↓ int./prod (area) & ↓ com. land: ↑ pressure on CR
  18. 18. other CA-related practices M-E1 H-B L-N1 H-I1 L-NG L-N2 L-Z L-MW M-E2 M-I2 L-MZ H-K > ½ area is tilled by animal; but also hand or tractor (not shown) Scarce legumes; market distortion & farming systems
  19. 19. results show that: CR are short-term resources: feed & Co. CR to mulch with lower pressure (very ↑ production; or ↑ production + ↓ demand), but practices need to change. With higher pressure: increase of production is needed. Each region has its own potential, challenges & options for more sustainable agriculture = no silver-bullet exists
  20. 20. work in progress household diversity linking better socio-economic, biophysical & institutional stakeholder involvement: R4D & demand-led R&D proposals

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