Costs of aflatoxin in the Kenyan dairy value chain


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Poster by Daniel Senerwa, Nadhem Mtimet, Johanna Lindahl, Erastus Kang'ethe and Delia Grace presented at the FoodAfrica midterm seminar, Helsinki, Finland, 16 June 2014.

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  • Public health risk caused by aflatoxin excretion in milk is high in developing countries. equally important is its adverse effect on cow health and reproduction. AFM1 upto 300% higher than EU-MRL in milk and dairy sweets was reported in Pakistan by several studies.It will be valuable and interesting to know the cost of this hidden problem in economic term. I request the authors for sharing the findings once the study is completed.
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Costs of aflatoxin in the Kenyan dairy value chain

  1. 1. Introduction Costs of aflatoxins in the Kenyan dairy value chain Kenya’s dairy industry contributes to 14% of agricultural GDP and 3.5% of the total GDP. Aspergillus fungi contaminate crops before harvest or postharvest and produce aflatoxins. Aflatoxin contaminated food/feed cause direct economic lossess (when the food/feed is unfit for consumption) and indirect economic losses due to acute and chronic aflatoxicosis in humans and dairy cattle. Several studies have reported a high prevalence of aflatoxins in maize, dairy feeds and milk in Kenya. The overall goal of the present study is to assess the economic costs of aflatoxins in Kenyan dairy value chain. 16 June 2014, Helsinki, Finland. FoodAfrica midterm seminar Daniel Senerwa1,2 Nadhem Mtimet1 Johanna Lindahl1 Erastus Kang’ethe2 and Delia Grace1 1International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Nairobi, P.O. Box 30907, Nairobi, Kenya 2University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya Figure 1. Aflatoxin contamination pathway (source: authors) Figure 2. Economic costs of aflatoxins (source: Khlangwiset and Wu, 2010) Methodology Site selection Conclusion Human health costs could be assessed through questionnaire directed to sampled consumers and using the following equation (Rico-Sole, 2012): 𝐴𝑓𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑥𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡ℎ 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑠𝑖 = 𝐻. 𝐸 𝑥𝑖. 𝑤𝑖. 𝑧𝑖 𝑛 𝑖 = 1 H: number of exposed habitants E: health expenditure per capita 𝑖: risk factor 𝑥𝑖: fraction in DALY’s implication in this population of risk factor 𝑖 𝑤𝑖: estimated fraction of implication of aflatoxin in risk factor 𝑖 𝑧𝑖: estimated fraction of implication of milk consumption in aflatoxin in risk factor 𝑖 Five study sites were selected from four agro-ecological zones:Kwale County (sub-humid), Isiolo County (semi-arid), Tharaka Nithi (humid), Kisii (temperate), and Bungoma (temperate). A questionnaire was administered to dairy farmers, milk traders, milk consumers, feed traders, and feed manufacturers. Samples of milk, foods and feeds were collected. The samples are being analysed for aflatoxins M1, B1, and total aflatoxin using ELISA and HPLC.The total aflatoxin exposure per day in humans and dairy cattle will be used to calculate aflatoxin costs. The aflatoxin human health costs will be calculated using the formula of Rico-Sole (2012). Figure 3. Study area (source: authors) There is need to assess the costs of aflatoxins in the Kenyan dairy value chain and suggest economically viable and socially acceptable mitigation strategies that could be followed to reduce aflatoxin contamination of foods and feeds. The results could help policymakers and the Kenya Dairy Board to implement strategies that allow the control of aflatoxin contamination in milk.