Conservation, livelihoods and privatised land: Wildlife conservancies in the Mara, Kenya Claire Bedelian PhD student Anthr...
Conservation approaches <ul><li>Protectionist approach  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  community conservation  –  conservation an...
Study site - The Mara <ul><li>Land use: livestock, agriculture and tourism  </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoral production central ...
Privatisation of group ranches <ul><ul><li>-  Security of tenure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual benefit </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Land tenure and property rights </li></ul><ul><li>Governance and management </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership </li></u...
Question 1: What are the organisational and institutional arrangements of wildlife conservancies Olare Orok Wildlife Conse...
1. Conservancy participation <ul><li>Half of households sampled were a member of at least one conservancy (Table 1) </li><...
Question 2: How do conservancies contribute to pastoral livelihoods? <ul><li>Payment   </li></ul><ul><li>Valuable incentiv...
Conclusion <ul><li>Opportunities for poverty reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Improved governance and management structure </li...
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Conservation, livelihoods and privatised land: Wildlife conservancies in the Mara, Kenya

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Presented by Claire Bedelian, ILRI, Nairobi, 16 August 2011


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Conservation, livelihoods and privatised land: Wildlife conservancies in the Mara, Kenya

  1. 1. Conservation, livelihoods and privatised land: Wildlife conservancies in the Mara, Kenya Claire Bedelian PhD student Anthropology Supervisor: Katherine Homewood 16 August 2011
  2. 2. Conservation approaches <ul><li>Protectionist approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li> community conservation – conservation and development goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> - poverty safety net </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> - vulnerable to elite capture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ back to barriers’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ New conservation’ approaches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Payments for ecosystem services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public-private partnerships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflects neoliberalisation of conservation efforts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private sector interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of global ecotourism </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Study site - The Mara <ul><li>Land use: livestock, agriculture and tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoral production central to Maasai livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>Highest densities of wildlife in Kenya – but wildlife declines </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife revenues benefit few Maasai </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elite capture </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distributional problems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Wheat farming Resident and migratory wildlife Extensive livestock farming
  4. 4. Privatisation of group ranches <ul><ul><li>- Security of tenure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual benefit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrupt process </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Land tenure and property rights </li></ul><ul><li>Governance and management </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Conservancy rules and norms (restrictions) </li></ul>Question 2: How do conservancies contribute to pastoral livelihoods? Question 1: What are the organisational and institutional arrangements of wildlife conservancies <ul><ul><ul><li>Relative to other livelihood activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conservancy participants vs non-participants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate with livestock-based livelihoods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Livelihood trade-offs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Question 1: What are the organisational and institutional arrangements of wildlife conservancies Olare Orok Wildlife Conservancy Ltd Land committee 154 landowners Conservancy Management Committee Land holding company Management company Shareholders Olpurkel Ltd TP TP TP TP Olare Orok Conservancy Trust Donor funding Communication Land lease payment Community projects Leases Communication Management agreement
  7. 7. 1. Conservancy participation <ul><li>Half of households sampled were a member of at least one conservancy (Table 1) </li></ul><ul><li>A few households members of 2 or 3 different conservancies </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: <1% of females were members </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth: Livestock holdings significantly higher for member households compared to non-member households (p<0.05) </li></ul><ul><li>Status: Those in a leadership position more commonly conservancy members (Table 2) </li></ul>Table 1 Table 2 Question 2: How do conservancies contribute to pastoral livelihoods?
  8. 8. Question 2: How do conservancies contribute to pastoral livelihoods? <ul><li>Payment </li></ul><ul><li>Valuable incentive ($40 ha/yr) – competitive land use option </li></ul><ul><li>Guaranteed rent - buffers tourism shocks, droughts </li></ul><ul><li>Land use restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>On settlements - displacement </li></ul><ul><li>On livestock grazing - controlled grazing plans, landowners only, grazing fines </li></ul><ul><li>On other activities - cultivation, fencing, natural resource collection, walking </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Livelihood decisions – voluntary contract, strong monetary incentive, but forgo other livelihood/land use options for 15 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Participants vs. non-participants - Non-participants loose out on payment and suffer grazing restrictions. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased land use pressure outside of conservancy boundaries </li></ul>VS. 2. Livelihood trade-offs
  9. 9. Conclusion <ul><li>Opportunities for poverty reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Improved governance and management structure </li></ul><ul><li>Who benefits? Landowners vs. non-landowners </li></ul><ul><li>Strong financial incentive but comes with livelihood trade-offs </li></ul><ul><li>Land lease – Land grab? </li></ul><ul><li>Implications for pastoral livelihoods and the wider rangelands </li></ul>

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