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Dairy production and related environmental issues in Tanzania
 

Dairy production and related environmental issues in Tanzania

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Presented by Robert Otsyina and D.G. Mlay at the CLEANED Project East Africa Stakeholder Consultation on Dairy and Environment Nairobi, Kenya, 18 September 2013

Presented by Robert Otsyina and D.G. Mlay at the CLEANED Project East Africa Stakeholder Consultation on Dairy and Environment Nairobi, Kenya, 18 September 2013

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    Dairy production and related environmental issues in Tanzania Dairy production and related environmental issues in Tanzania Presentation Transcript

    • Dairy production and related environmental issues in Tanzania Robert Otsyina and D.G. Mlay CLEANED Project East Africa Stakeholder Consultation on Dairy and Environment Nairobi, Kenya, 18 September 2013
    • Presentation Outline  Introduction  Recent trends in livestock/dairy development  Demand and supply situation  Dairy production systems  Intensive and extensive  Current interventions  Impacts on the environment  Key drivers/Challenges  Conclusion
    • Introduction  With about 22.8 million cattle, Tanzania is the third country in Africa (after Ethiopia and Sudan) in terms of size of livestock population.  The dairy industry is one of the most important agricultural subsectors in Tanzania.  Several farm families depend on livestock and dairy production for their livelihoods.  Consumption for milk is expected to increase in Tanzania from the current per capita consumption of 45 liters per year to about 100 liters/capita/yr by 2020.  The Government is putting a lot of emphasis and efforts on dairy development in the country.
    • MILK PRODUCTION SITUATION  Total milk production 2012/13 reported to 1.92 billion litres.  Total number of cattle 22.8 million (2012/13)  Number of improved Dairy cattle was about 720,000 (2011/12) kept by about 130,000 HH and produce 30% of total milk  70% of total milk produced comes from local cattle kept by an estimated 1.6 million HH
    • 0 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 1,000,000 1,200,000 1,400,000 1,600,000 1,800,000 2,000,000 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 Indig Cows Improved cows Total Milk production trends
    • MILK CONSUMPTION  Per capita milk consumption 45.0 lts/annum(2012/13)  Recommended level is 200 lts per head per annum.  Current analysis show that demand is far beyond the supply.  Initiatives to improve human nutrition will further increase demand and subsequent increases in livestock population.
    • Dairy Production systems  Extensive, traditional cattle systems  - Low input-low output system  Displacement of cattle from one place to the other in search for fodder  Intensive smallholder dairying  Cut and carry system  Supplementation
    • Dairy Production Systems  Large scale institutional and private commercial farms account for about 25 -30,000 dairy cattle and about 2-5% of milk production
    • Challenges  Seasonal fluctuations in production esp. from traditional herds.  Quantity and quality of feeds especially during the dry seasons.  Overgrazing of communal rangelands  Frequent conflicts between livestock keepers and farmers  Diseases such as tick borne diseases that kill up to 40% of calves if regular spraying /dipping is not done  Long calving intervals due to poor breeding practices  Low milk production density makes milk collection uneconomical and non competitive.  Poor milk processing and handling infrastructure.
    • Key Interventions  Improving productivity of indigenous cattle ( Breeding programmes),  Expansion of the improved dairy herd and promoting milk consumption.  Capacity building among communities to manage and conserve and communal grazing land and the environment (Participatory rangeland and Forest Management systems ).  Improvement of grazing lands and pastures using multipurpose tress, legumes and grasses in agroforestry systems.  Disease control mechanisms.  Policy reforms to secure land ownership  Value chain development
    • Current trends and environmental issues  Growth in incomes, population and urbanization are driving increases in demand for meat and dairy products.  Rapid expansion of livestock numbers in extensive and intensive systems.  Concentration of livestock populations in urban areas  Over-grazing of agricultural and rangelands.  Inadequate legal frame work in land ownership.  Most of land used for grazing is owned communally, therefore no incentive to manage grazing lands.  Displacement of cattle into agricultural and forest areas.
    • Impacts on natural resources and environment  Increasing overgrazing and environmental degradation of rangelands, forest ecosystems, pastures and farm lands (Depletion of carbon stocks).  Increasing soil erosion and nutrient losses.  Degradation of water systems and sources ( water catchments).  As livestock production systems intensify towards industrial and feedlot systems, water pollution and manure disposal issues become more serious.  Pollution from livestock/dairy farming affects the atmosphere, surface water and groundwater systems.  Increasing carbon footprints in dairy production and processing.  Increasing effects of climate change on local populations and natural resources.
    • Conclusion  Livestock production and dairy in particular provide good opportunities for income generation and livelihood improvements in Tanzania.  Demand for dairy products increase with population increases. This will drive increases in livestock populations.  Livestock (dairy) is seen as a key driver of greenhouse gas emissions.  Interventions to address livestock effects on the natural resources and the environment should be given due priority.