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Links of the Biodigester sector with the dairy sector and environment


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Presented by Peter Bos at the CLEANED Project East Africa Stakeholder Consultation on Dairy and Environment Nairobi, Kenya, 18 September 2013 …

Presented by Peter Bos at the CLEANED Project East Africa Stakeholder Consultation on Dairy and Environment Nairobi, Kenya, 18 September 2013

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  • 1. Links of the Biodigester sector with the Dairy sector and Environment Peter Bos CLEANED Project East Africa Stakeholder Consultation on Dairy and Environment Nairobi, Kenya, 18 September 2013
  • 2. SNV- TA 1 Outline Intro on Biodigester Dairy – Biogas sector Bio-slurry as fertilizer Energy use for dairy farmers Improved Environment
  • 3. 2. Biodigester unit 3 Fig 1: Fixed dome domestic biogas installation Fig 1: Fixed dome domestic biogas installation
  • 4. 4Title
  • 5. 5Title The feasibility nexus Technically possible Economically attractive Environmentally sustainable Socially acceptable Programme environment Political context Feasibility nexus
  • 6. 6Title
  • 7. Financial and economic performance of domestic biogas installations SNV Dom. Biogas Programs Asia Nepal Vietnam Cambodia Bangladesh Laos Pakistan Indonesia Africa Rwanda Ethiopia Tanzania Kenya Uganda Burkina Faso
  • 8. 3. Dairy and biogas • Traditionally, small scale biogas and small scale dairy have always been having tight links. • => From a biogas point of view: zero stabled- dairy cows / overnight stabling, are the producer of the substrate for the biogas installation. • => From a dairy perspective: a biogas installation contribute to a proper and hygienic management of cow dung, the production of energy for hot/warm water to clean milking equipment and cattle before and after milking, nutrients cycling…. 8
  • 9. Biochemical processes and biogas The dairy cow Mature “developed (!)” dairy cow Live weight 635 kg Milk production 20 – 35 kg / day Main dung characteristics: Daily fresh manure production: 51 kg per day (61 litres / day) Total solids: 6.4 kg (TS (= DM) ~ 13% of fresh wght) Macro nutrients: Micro nutrients / trace elements Nitrogen Nk: Phosphorus P: 0.04 kg Potassium K: 0.16 kgTypical substrates Cow dung 0.025 0.050 Pig dung 0.040 0.070 Poultry litter 0.065 0.120 Nigh soil 0.030 0.070 specific biogas production [m 3 /kg] “Developing” cattle: •Weight <250 kg •Milk production 1-5 kg/day •TS >20% of fresh wght
  • 10. 10 Farm system Crop production system Household system Animal production system Biogas plant Bio slurry
  • 11. 4. Bio-slurry as fertilizer Improved soil fertility: • Higher yield kg/ha • Better quality, higher price/kg • Savings on chemical fertilizer • Savings on pesticides Bio-slurry can be used fresh or mixed with agricultural residues to make compost! Often the financial benefits of bio-slurry is greater than that of biogas! 11Title
  • 12. Slurry use for aqua culture • Food for fish • Fast uptake of inorganic materials by plankton • Plankton food for fish • Little use of O2, better water quality • Less risks for fish diseases • Increase in fish growth of 15- 30% compared to fresh dung 12Title
  • 13. Bio-slurry • Dehydrated digested sludge can be used as feed supplement for pig and poultry. • Mushroom farming: increase in yields of 15% more compared to that of usual medium using bio-slurry and reducing pick time by 7 days. 13
  • 14. 14 Wet Application
  • 15. 15 Dry Application
  • 16. 16 Bio-slurry use matters! Small fraction of soils: < 2 % (in tropics) OM: • Living organisms: roots, fungi, earthworms, etc. • Dead material: plant residues, fym, compost, humus, etc Positive effects: • Soil structure (roots, air) • Water retention capacity • Soil fertility (CEC = cation exchange capacity) • Buffers soil pH • Resistance to erosion
  • 17. 5. Energy use for dairy farmers • Use of biogas for heating of water to clean milking equipment and cattle before and after milking. • To a lesser extent, biogas-energy has been applied for on-farm milk processing, mainly pasteurizing raw milk • Innovative idea; use of biogas for milk chilling at HH level both micro-scale (6-16 M3) and medium sized digesters (24-60 M3). - special designed milk coolers operating on biogas - use of generators operating on biogas Preliminary calculations indicate that the per-head production of cattle dung produces sufficient energy to cool down the per head milk production. 17
  • 18. Domestic biogas & carbon revenue 6. Improved EnvironmentBiogas & GHG reduction Manure handling modality Fossil- and NRB fuel substitution Chemical fertilizer substitution
  • 19. Project boundary Animal manure storage Biogas stove (thermal energy to the user) Fertilizer for fields manure biogas Bio- slurry
  • 20. Concluding • The impact of a biogas installation on the dairy quality is high; - improved hygienic conditions and cleanness • - energy for heating, pasteurisation and possible chilling • - organic potential fertilizer for crops / fodder grasses / fishponds. • - reduced GHG emissions by saving NRM fuels. • => resulting that Nestle supported the construction of bio- digesters for all its farmer-producers in Indonesia. 20
  • 21. Asante sana! SNV - Kenya Peter Bos, Senior Advisor Renewable Energy, For more information, please contact:
  • 22. 22 Plant nutrients Macronutrients • Primary: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) • Secondary: calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S) Micronutrients (trace elements) • boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), chloride (Cl), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn) Non-Mineral Nutrients • hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), carbon (C) Measured: dry weight in % or g/kg or ppm (= parts per million)
  • 23. 23 Macro nutrients Nitrogen (N) • proteins, enzymes and metabolic processes. • chlorophyll ⇨ photosynthesis. • rapid growth, seed and fruit production, quality. Phosphorus (P) • photosynthesis rapid growth. • formation of all oils, sugars, starches, etc. • encourages blooming and root growth. Potassium (K) • building of protein, photosynthesis, fruit quality. • reduction of diseases.
  • 24. 24 Fertilizers Organic fertilizer:  Broad range of nutrients  Low in N-P-K  Long term effect (indirect)  Soil organic matter content Chemical fertilizers:  Short term effect (direct)  High in N, P or K Integrated Soil Fertility Management:  Optimal combination of organic and chemical fertilizers
  • 25. Domestic biogas & carbon revenue Manure handling modality Methane emissions per animal type “i” in “j” systems: CH4 i = ∑j Bo i x VSi x MS%ij x MCFj CH4= Methane emissions [kgm-3] Bo= Biodegradability [m3 CH4 (kgVS)-1] MS%= Manure management system usage [%] MCF= Methane conversion factor [%] VS= Volatile solids [kgyr-1]
  • 26. Domestic biogas & carbon revenue Biomass and fossil fuel substitution Baseline emissions for thermal energy for one household: BEth, h = ∑j (( F i,bl,h) x NCVi x EFco2 i) Beth,h = Baseline hh emissions from thermal energy [t CO2eq] Fi, bl, h= Amount of fuel i in baseline situation per hh [kg, m3 or ltr] NCVi = Net calorific value fuel i [GJkg-1etc] EFco2 i= CO2 emission factor for fuel i [tCO2kg-1]