Prevalence	
  and	
  molecular	
  characterisa2on	
  of	
  
Eimeria	
  species	
  in	
  Ethiopian	
  village	
  chickens	
...
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Prevalence and molecular characterisation of Eimeria species in Ethiopian village chickens

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Poster prepared by L. Luu , J. Bettridge, R. Christley, K. Melese, D. Blake, Tadelle Dessie, P. Wigley, Takele Taye Desta, O. Hanotte, P. Kaiser, Zelalem Gutu Terfa, M. Collins and S. Lynch for the Annual Meeting of the Society of Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Madrid, Spain, 20-22 March 2013.

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Prevalence and molecular characterisation of Eimeria species in Ethiopian village chickens

  1. 1. Prevalence  and  molecular  characterisa2on  of   Eimeria  species  in  Ethiopian  village  chickens   L.  Luu1  ,  J.  Be*ridge1,2,  R.  Christley1,  K.  Melese3,    D.  Blake4,  T.  Dessie2,  P.  Wigley1  ,  T.  Desta2,5  ,  O.  Hano*e,5,  P.  Kaiser6,  Z.  Terfa2,7,     M.  Collins1  and  S.  Lynch1,2       1  Ins&tute  of  Infec&on  and  Global  Health,  University  of  Liverpool,  UK;  2  Interna&onal  Livestock  Research  Ins&tute,  Addis,  Ababa,  Ethiopia;  3  Debre  Zeit   Agricultural  Research  Centre,  Ethiopian  Ins&tute  for  Agriculture  Research,  Debre  Zeit,  Ethiopia;  4  Department  of  Pathology  and  Infec&ous  Diseases,   Royal  Veterinary  College,  UK;  5  Centre  for  Gene&cs  and  Genomics,  School  of  Biology,  University  of  NoPngham,  UK;  6  The  Roslin  Ins&tute  and  Royal   (Dick)  School  of  Veterinary  Science,  University  of  Edinburgh,  UK;  7  Management  School,  University  of  Liverpool,  UK           Sampling  Strategy                 Eimeria     •  Protozoan  parasites  are  found  worldwide  and    in  all  types  of   chicken  producOon  system   •  7  species  are  known,  but  are  difficult  to  differenOate  based    on   appearance  under  the  microscope   •  Some  species  cause  severe  disease  and  death,  whilst  others    are   only  mildly  pathogenic,  but  may  reduce  growth  rates   References   1.  Permin  A,  Hansen  JW:  Epidemiology,  diagnosis  and  disease  control  of  poultry  parasites.  Food  and  Agriculture  OrganizaOon  of  the  United  NaOons:  Rome;  1998.   2.  Vrba  V,  Blake  DP,  Poplstein  M:  Quan2ta2ve  real-­‐2me  PCR  assays  for  detec2on  and  quan2fica2on  of  all  seven  Eimeria  species  that  infect  the  chicken.  Vet  Parasitol  2010,  174:183–190.   3.  McDougald  LR:  Coccidiosis.  In  Diseases  of  poultry.  11th  ediOon.  Edited  by  Saif  YM,  Barnes  J,  Glisson  JR,  Fadly  AM,  McDougald  LR,  Swayne  DE.  Ames:  Iowa  State  Press  ;  2003.     Roundworm   egg   Eimeria  oocyst   Eimeria  oocysts   X100  magnifica2on   X200  magnifica2on   Methods     •  Faecal  samples  were  collected  from  healthy  adult  chickens  from  two   Ethiopian  woredas  in  May  (n=383)  and  October  2011  (n=384)     •  Where  possible,  chickens    sampled  in  May  were  resampled  in  October,   giving  110  further  samples   •  McMasters  counts  were  performed  on  each  sample  to  quanOfy  oocysts     [1]   •  A  selecOon  of  samples  from  those  collected  in  May  from  each  woreda   were  speciated  using    real  Ome  PCR  [2]   Detec2on  of  Eimeria  oocysts  in  faeces                         •  427  (56%)  of  samples  were  posiOve  for  oocysts,  but  more  samples   were  posiOve  in  October  (65%)  compared  to  May  (47%)   •  There  was  moderate  clustering  of  posiOve  birds  within  households,   suggesOng  common  risk  factors  or  exposure   •  There  was  no  difference  in  overall  prevalence  between  the  regions  or   villages,  but  different  species  were  more  prevalent  in  each  region   •  Birds  posiOve  in  May  were  just  as  likely  to  be  posiOve  in  October  as   randomly-­‐sampled  birds,  perhaps  suggesOng  infecOon  with  different   species,  or  immunologically  disOnct  strains   Region     Mixed  species   infec2on    (n  =  23)     Single  species   infec2on     (n  =  13)   Species   Horro   Jarso   Fisher’s   exact    p-­‐value   (n  =  22)   (n  =  25)   E.  acervulina   9  (40%)   10  (40%)   0.8   12  (52%)   1  (8%)   E.  bruneP  1   4  (18%)   5  (20%)   0.9   5  (22%)   0  (0%)   E.  maxima   5  (22%)   15  (60%)   0.022   13  (57%)   4  (31%)   E.  mi&s   0  (0%)   7  (28%)   0.012   2  (9%)   2  (15%)   E.  necatrix  1   4  (18%)   2  (8%)   0.4   4  (17%)   0  (0%)   E.  praecox   21  (95%)   9  (36%)   <0.0012   17  (74%)   6  (46%)   E.  tenella  1   3  (12%)   7  (28%)   0.3   3  (13%)   0  (0%)   Frequency  of  PCR  detec2on  of  Eimeria  species  in  chicken  faecal  samples   1Considered  to  be  highly  pathogenic  [3].   2Significantly  different  (p  <0.05).   Conclusions     •  Eimeria  oocysts,  including  those  with  the  potenOal  to  be  highly  pathogenic,   can  be  frequently  detected  in  faecal  samples    from  village  chickens  in  the   absence  of  clinical  signs  of  disease   •  There  is  variaOon  in  the  prevalence  of  some  species  between  regions,   perhaps  suggesOng  local  risk  factors  associated  with  the  birds,  management   or  environment   •  Further  invesOgaOons  are  required  to  assess  the  role  of  Eimeria  in  clinical   disease  and  subclinical  effects  on  producOon  in  village  chickens   •  Research  is  also  required  as  to  whether  intervenOons  may  have  any  posiOve   impacts,  or  impact  negaOvely  by  disrupOng  exisOng  endemic  stability   Weighing  faecal  samples   in  the  Debre  Zeit   laboratory  in  prepara&on   for    parasite  examina&on   •  All  seven  species  were  detected,  and  highly  pathogenic  species  were  detected  in   20/47  (43%)  of  samples   •  Mixed  infecOons  were  common  (in  36  samples  known  to  come  from  a  single  bird),   and  tended  to  occur  with  the  most  prevalent  species  in  each  region    

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