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EIAR progress report on N2Africa bridging year in Ethiopia (2013)

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Presented by Angaw Tsige (EIAR) at the N2Africa Ethiopia Launch Workshop, Addis Ababa, 27-28 February 2014 …

Presented by Angaw Tsige (EIAR) at the N2Africa Ethiopia Launch Workshop, Addis Ababa, 27-28 February 2014


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  • 1. በሀዋሳ ዩኒቨርሰቲ የ ጋር በመ HAWASSA U DIRECTO EIAR progress report on N2Africa bridging year in Ethiopia (2013) Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa Angaw Tsige, EIAR N2Africa Ethiopia Launch Workshop, ILRI 27-28 February 2014
  • 2.  BNF study in Ethiopia in 1980s.  The study had no sustainable support and research plan until late 1990s 1. Introduction  Most institutions have been started to demonstrate very fruitful results and been able to create demands for their product;  few strains  one multiplication center  Few expertise  However, there was all round challenges and limitations
  • 3. Project area N2Africa – Ethiopia (EIAR)  Debre Zeite ARC Chefe Donsa and Adaa districts, East Shewa, Oromia Regional State  Melkasa ARC Shalla district, West Arsi Zone, Oromia Regional State  Pawe ARC Mandura district, of Benshangul Gumuz Regional State
  • 4. Test crops for the project
  • 5. Crop Types Land area (ha) Yield (t/ha) Potential yield (t/ha) Sources Faba bean 459,183 1.5 5.0 CSA, 2010 Common bean 237,366 1.4 3.0 CSA, 2010 Chick pea 208,388 1.5 3.0 CSA, 2010 Field pea 203,991 1.3 CSA, 2010 Lentil 73,341 1.0 CSA, 2010 Vetch 131,043 1.5 CSA, 2010 Soybean 11,261 1.4 4.0 CSA, 2010 Table 1: Area under cultivation, average yields and potential yields in Ethiopia (2010)
  • 6. Baby Trial = legume varieties vs inorganic P fertilizer vs inoculant ‘Input trial’ = a legume variety vs inorganic P fertilizer vs inoculant ‘Variety trial’ = legume varieties vs inorganic P fertilizer and inoculant 3. Project bridging activities run during 2013/2014 cropping season
  • 7. 1 Melkasa Common Bean Awash 1 - - 2 Nasir - - 3 Awash 1 25 kg /ha DAP + 4 Nasir 25 kg /ha DAP + No. Responsible Center Crop types Variety Fertilizer Inoculant 1 Debre Zeit Chickpea Yelbe - - 2 Natoli - - 3 Yelbe 25 kg /ha DAP + 4 Natoli 25 kg /ha DAP + 1 Pawe Common Bean Awash 1 - - 2 Nasir - - 3 Awash 1 25 kg /ha DAP + 4 Nasir 25 kg /ha DAP + 25 kg ha DAP 4.5 N 11.5 P2O5 Inoculant = CP 41 Inoculant = HB EAL429
  • 8. Responsible Center Crop types Sites * Site Code Plot Size Spacing Debre Zeit Chickpea Chefe Donsa Eth-CD01 10m x 10m 30cm x 10cm Udee 10m x 10m 30cm x 10cm Melkasa Common Bean Lencha leman Eth-LL01 10m x 10m 30cm x 10cm Awara Gama Eth-AG02 10m x 10m 30cm x 10cm Fande Ejersa Eth-FE03 10m x 10m 30cm x 10cm Pawe Common Bean Jigda Eth-M01 10m x 10m 30cm x 10cm Dehoanzibag una Eth-M02 10m x 10m 30cm x 10cm Edida Eth-M02 10m x 10m 30cm x 10cm * conducted on 15 farmers’ fields, 5 farmers per Kebele
  • 9. 1 Melkasa Common Bean Nasir - - 2 Nasir 25 kg /ha DAP - 3 Nasir - + 4 Nasir 25 kg /ha DAP + No. Responsible Center Crop types Variety Fertilizer Inoculant 1 Debre Zeit Chickpea Natoli - - 2 Natoli 25 kg /ha DAP - 3 Natoli - + 4 Natoli 25 kg /ha DAP + 1 Pawe Common Bean Nasir - - 2 Nasir 25 kg/ha DAP - 3 Nasir - + 4 Nasir 25 kg /ha DAP + 25 kg ha DAP 4.5 N 11.5 P2O5 Inoculant = CP 41 Inoculant = HB EAL 429
  • 10. Responsible Center Crop/ Variety District, FTC Site Code Plot Size Soils Debre Zeit Chickpea/ Arerti Adaa/ Udee, East Shewa Eth-A 3m x 4m Vertisols Melkasa Common Bean/ Nasir Shala, West Arsi zone Eth-Sh 3m x 4m Andosols Pawe Common Bean/ Nasir Mandura, BGR Eth-M 3m x 4m Nitisols
  • 11. Shalla district Mandura district Varieties used ECAB0081 Argene ECAB0081 GLP2 Awash Dume GLP2 ECAB0056 Awash Melka ECAB0056 Nassir Awash-1 Nassir Awash1 Dimtu Awash1 Deme Dinkinesh Deme Dinkinesh IBADO Dinkinesh Dimitu Nassir Dimitu A/Melka Sari A/Melka Argene Awash Dume IBADO Sari Common bean Varieties
  • 12. Project achievements  Results Other project activities undertaken in 2013 Results
  • 13. 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 BMY (t/ha) Wihout inoculant BMY (t/ha) With inoculant Figure 1. Effect of DAP and inoculants on Biomass yield of Chickpea (Arerti) on farmers field ‘Baby Trial’ Chefe Donsa
  • 14. 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 Po P1 Po P1 Po P1 Po P1 Po P1 Po P1 Abebech Desse Mesfin Alemayehu Dagne Tesema Dagne Tesema Gemechu Sagn Teshome GY (T/ha) Wihout inoculant GY (T/ha) With inoculant Figure 2. Effect of DAP and inoculants on Grain yield of Chickpea (Arerti) on farmers field ‘Baby Trial’ Chefe Donsa
  • 15. ‘Baby Trial’ Shalla Yield Response of two common bean varieties to fertilizer and inoculant across kebele Fande Ejersa Awara Gama Lencha leman GrainYieldofcommonbean 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Awsh1 Awsh1+DAP+Inoculant Nassir Nassir+DAP+Inoculant Figure 3. Response of two common bean to DAP and inoculants across farmers field at different kebeles
  • 16. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Fande Ejersa Awara Gama Lencha lemanGrainyield(Kg/ha) ‘Baby Trial’ Shalla
  • 17. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Nasir Awash Melka Nasir Awash Melka Nasir Awash Melka Nasir Awash Melka Nasir Awash Melka Nasir Awash Melka Without Inputs With Inputs Grainyield,Kgha-1 ‘Baby Trial’ at Mandura
  • 18. Input Trial at Mandura Treatment Plant height (cm) Biomass Yield (t /ha) Grain Yield (t /ha) 25kgDAP 51.4 1.90 1.61 25kgDAP & Inoculant 45.6 1.68 1.33 Inoculant 45.93 1.48 1.23 Without Inputs 46.53 1.50 1.20 CV 11.4 21.72 23.38 LSD ns ns ns Table 1. Effect of DAP fertilizer and inoculants on common bean Nassir variety Nassir (biomass and grain yield)
  • 19. Table 2. Effect of DAP fertilizer and inoculants on common bean Nassir variety yield components, biomass and nodulation of Treatment No. of Pod/ plant seed/ pod Grain Yield (t ha-1) Biomass (t ha-1) Nodules /plant DAP + Inoculant 11.3a 5.0a 3.67a 6.67a 33.5a DAP 7.1b 4.7a 2.79b 5.33ab 31.03a Inoculant 6.7b 3.7b 2.47b 6.33ab 31.9a Nasir (Control) 5.6b 2.7c 1.79c 5.80b 29.8a LSD 3.29 1 0.78 0.89 9.13 CV (%) 21.4 12.5 14.6 7.5 14.5 Sign * * * ns ns Input Trial at Shalla
  • 20. Table 3. Effect of DAP fertilizer and inoculants on yield, yield components, biomass and nodulation of common bean varieties Treatment No. of Pods/plant No. of Seeds/pod No. of active nodules/plant No. of inactive nodules/plant ECAB0081 14.0 4.7 9.33 0.67 GLP2 13.3 3.1 9.17 0.83 ECAB0056 14.0 4.7 9.00 1.00 Nasir 16.7 6.1 8.00 2.00 Awash1 12.7 3.7 8.50 1.50 Deme 14.7 5.3 9.00 1.00 Dinkinesh 11.3 3.7 8.00 2.00 Dimitu 14.3 4.3 8.17 1.83 A/Melka 11.7 3.0 8.83 1.17 LSD 2.40 0.7 1.70 1.70 CV (%) 10.3 9.0 11.5 17.5 Sign. * * NS NS Variety trial at Shalla
  • 21. Variety trial Shalla 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Grain Yield (t/ha) Biomass (t/ha) No. of Nodules/plant Common bean root nodulation Scoring, Ethiopia 2013
  • 22. Farmers name/site Clay (%) Sand (%) Silt (%) Textur e pH (1:2.5) Total N (%) OM (%) C:N CEC (meq/ 100g Soil) Ava.P (ppm) Mihret abebe 70 13 17 Cl 5.09 0.177 4.701 15.41 23.11 1.07 Ejigu moges 78 11 11 Cl 4.66 0.162 3.611 12.93 33.13 0.25 Neguse tesema 68 6 26 Cl 5.31 0.169 4.292 14.73 25.7 0.33 FTC 38 18 44 SiClL 7.47 0.190 5.042 15.39 26.1 99.96 Berhanu asmare 48 16 36 SiCl 6.35 0.193 7.222 21.71 32.9 3.66 Yeshewase mekonen 30 26 44 ClL 6.02 0.170 7.631 26.04 30.26 77.98 Inputs trial 80 1 19 Cl 5.08 0.169 4.497 15.43 26.08 1.32 Variety trial 78 3 19 Cl 4.93 0.156 4.088 15.20 23.05 1.57 Table: Soil physicochemical properties before planting at Mandura district Nitisols varieties Argene Awash dume Awash Melka Awash- 1 Dimt u Dinknes h IBADO Nassir Sari weed %N 2.11 1.88 2.53 2.28 2.28 2.27 2.14 1.88 1.89 1.94
  • 23. Summary  Common bean variety Nasir and chickpea variety Arerti responded very significantly to both types of fertilizers in Shalla district while it has NS difference at Mandura  Hence, it is important to look for microbial inoculants adopted to specific ecosystem /universal type/  Chickpea variety Arerti well responded to rhizobial inoculants and gave significant yield advantage over the control at Adaa situation  Common bean Nassir showed its superiority over many improved varieties and responded significantly to integrated fertilizer use  Legumes (CB & CP) yield improved as a result of integrated fertilizer use (rhizobial inoculant and inorganic fertilizer)  Farmers have been convinced the advantage of using rhizobial fertilizer and were giving their witness during field days very happily
  • 24.  Awareness creation on N2 Africa project activities for zonal and district leaders, and technical persons in BOA  Farmers identification and site selection  Obtaining/availing of inputs (DAP, inoculants and seed)  Land preparation and planting  Monitoring and Data collection  Organizing farmers field day Other activities undertaken in 2013
  • 25. Training and awareness creation on N2Africa activities Survey and site selection N2Africa Training and awareness creation on N2Africa activities
  • 26. N2Africa Farmers’ Field day at Shalla west Arsi Zone, Oromia Reg. State N2Africa Farmers’ Field day common bean at Mandura Benshangule Gumuze R. State
  • 27. N2Africa Farmers’ Field day common bean at Mandura Benshangule Gumuze R. State N2Africa Farmers’ Field day at Shalla west Arsi Zone, Oromia Reg. State
  • 28.  Shortage of vehicle for proper management of the trials  Lack of research supplies (Chemicals etc)  Late planting due to delay in MOU between EIAR and ILRI  Animal damage/attack  Human interference (early harvest, theft and damage) in trials  Disease and pest occurrence  Delay of budget releasing  Inadequate biofertilizers products  The lack of quality control on biofertilizers  Lack of all round training Challenges
  • 29. Lessons learnt  The project has been able to bring many stakeholders in one plat form for the improvement of the legume production system  Lack of clear protocols for each activities  Lack of experience by technicians to collect all data and information  Need for special training at all level of expertise and farmers  Need for additional and alternative biofertilizers products  Need for empowering women farmers on legume production
  • 30. The Way Forward  Address more food and forage growing areas through research centers (Jima, Assosa, Kulumsa, etc)  Screen more additional new potential inoculants  Strengthening the existing labs (equipments & research supplies)  Training and awareness creation  Timely release of budget  Including other important legumes (Soybean, Faba bean and Climbing bean)  Screening of BNF inoculants across different stress conditions  Scaling up of promising result  Quality biofertilizers and Economics on results  More Graduate students participation