Importance of livestock and the technological and policy challenges facing the development of livestock in Africa
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Importance of livestock and the technological and policy challenges facing the development of livestock in Africa



Presented by Michael Blϋmmel, Phil Toye, Okeyo Mwai, Ian Wright, Tom Randolph and Steve Staal at the Global feed and food congress, Sun City, South Africa, 10-12 April 2013

Presented by Michael Blϋmmel, Phil Toye, Okeyo Mwai, Ian Wright, Tom Randolph and Steve Staal at the Global feed and food congress, Sun City, South Africa, 10-12 April 2013



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    Importance of livestock and the technological and policy challenges facing the development of livestock in Africa Importance of livestock and the technological and policy challenges facing the development of livestock in Africa Presentation Transcript

    • Importance of livestock and the technologicaland policy challenges facing the development of livestock in AfricaMichael Blϋmmel, Phil Toye, Okeyo Mwai, Ian Wright, Tom Randolph and Steve Staal Global feed and food congress, Sun City, South Africa 10-12 April 2013
    • Outline of Presentation Importance of livestock and opportunities from livestock (livestock revolution)Constraints to increasing livestock and productivity: technical, institutional and political Key feed technological interventions ILRI Framework for increasing animal sourced food (ASF) availability through increasing livestock productivity using value approaches
    • Number of livestock keepers in Sub Saharan Africa living on less than US $ 2 per day Regions/sub-region Number of livestock keepers Sub-Saharan Africa 319 908 000 Central Africa 29 815 000 Western Africa 132 742 000 East Africa 104 816 000 Southern Africa 52 534 000 Herrero et al. (2012)
    • Predicted global increase in meat and milk demand till 2050 (“livestock revolution”) 2000 2050 Meat production (million t/y) 229 465 Milk production (million t/y) 580 1043 Note: essentially all increased demand from low and middle income countries (Delgado et al., 1999; FAO, 2006)
    • Contraction, convergence and ceilingvalues in animal sourced food (ASF) 1. 90 g/d of meat (max 50% red meat) or 2. 20 g protein/d achieved either by: • 33 kg lean meat/year • 45 kg fish/year • 60 kg eggs/year • 230 kg milk/year
    • Global meat consumption pattern Country/category Gram per day Developed countries 224 Developing countries 47 Africa 31 Latin America 147 (Adopted from McMichael et al. 2007)
    • Severe productivity gaps in livestock productivity: Meat (kg output/kg biomass/yr) 0.2 0.17 1980 2005 0.11 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.03 Africa Latin America South Asia Industrialized Countries Biomass is calculated as inventory x average live weight. Output is given as carcass weight. Source: (Steinfeld et al. 2006)
    • Severe productivity gaps in livestock productivity: Milk (kg/cow/yr) 6350 1980 2005 4226 1380 1021 904 411 397 517 Africa Latin America South Asia Industrialized Countries Source: (Steinfeld et al 2006)
    • Key constraints: Institutional, Policy Small holder livestock producers often rely on informal markets (IM), not supported by institutions and policies • Standards, regulations & market information generally ignore IM • IM driven by demand for low cost products • Long term constructive engagement with IM required Small holder face problems in meeting increasing quality standards for high end domestic and export ASF markets • Export markets monopolized by specialized commercial producers • Little participation by small holders Policy and investment attention generally focused on export markets, even though export quotas are generally not met because of limited quality supply capacity • Domestic markets receive little attention, despite being larger then export markets
    • Key constraints: Institutional, Policy Weakening support by government extension services for example in animal health and nutrition without adequate compensation by private sector efforts • Animal health policies focused on diseases of trade • Little attention to endemic diseases of production that limit small holder competitiveness • Inadequate enforcement of feed quality standards, larger producers are less effected by this In some regions and for some products there is strong competition from import of ASF, often with the implicit support of the same donor governments who are investing in rural livestock development • Regional livestock trade is constrained by bureaucratic procedures, border transactions costs and tariff even with regional economic blocks. General underfunding of livestock research and development, including human resources
    • Support for Livestock ResearchArea of Research East Africa Southern Africa West Africa Sub-Saharan AfricaCrops 43.0 49.5 45.9 45.5Livestock 22.0 20.7 17.5 19.9Natural Resources 9.5 10.9 7.1 8.8Forestry 7.6 3.2 6.9 6.4Socio Economics 5.5 2.9 6.9 5.5Fisheries 5.2 3.1 6.6 5.3Off farm Postharvest 2.6 6.4 6.1 4.8Others 4.6 3.3 3.0 3.7 Beintema and Stads (2006)
    • Key constraints: Animal Health Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia: most important cattle disease in Africa • Activity: vaccine development and diagnostics East Cost fever: major livestock constraint in East, Central and Southern Africa • Activity: vaccine development African Swine Fever: increasing importance in Africa with spread to Europe • Activity: understand transmission dynamics, develop bio-security protocols and improved diagnostic assays Peste de Petits Ruminants: viral disease that causes high losses in small ruminants • Activity: develop thermostable vaccines and assess best institutional deliver pathways Porcine Cysticercosis: increasing heath problems were pigs are important • Activity: develop pen-side diagnosis
    • Key constraints: Animal Breeding & Genetics Inefficient multiplication and delivery of appropriate livestock genetics: • Activity: Community-based breeding programs to identify and deliver improved future parents, develop & use of emerging genomic & reproductive tools (nuclear transfers, transgenic, in-vitro embryo production etc.) Inadequate understanding of breed characteristics, functional diversity & keepers objectives: • Activity: breed & systems characterization for breeding objectives, development of databases Difficulty identifying and best matching of breed types to production environments: • Activity: definition of breeding objectives and testing of breed-production environment match, use of genomic tools to identify breed compositions and the associated phenotypic performance under diff. systems, innovative use of IT (e.g. crowd-sourcing or text messaging to relay performance data)
    • Key constraints: Animal Feeds Overall lack of feed quantity and quality relative to livestock population and productivity level, aggravated by seasonality Feed costs rising relative to income from sale of produce, fodder biomass relative to food is getting more expensive (straw: grain price ratio) Scarcity of land and water and increasing competition for biomass (conservation agriculture, bio-fuels) Limited success in private investment in feed processing for ruminant livestock, lack of regulatory mechanism, often inefficient feed and fodder markets Valuable feed ingredients often not available domestically, exported for hard currency
    • Key mitigation strategies: Animal Feeds Making better use of available feed resource on farm: • Optimize use of basal diets • Feed conservations options • Strategic allocations of feed resources • Intensification of production, reduce feed allocations to maintenance Producing more and better feeds: • Food-Feed Crops • Specialized Forages • Agro/bio-fuel by products Feed processing, densification, fortification and redistribution options • Optimize physical feed form (supplemented, block, pellet, mash, animal response, labor, transport, storage etc) • Surplus to deficit feed transport • Decentralized feed processing business options
    • Total Mixed Ration: Impact of ration balancing supplementation and choice of basal diet Ingredients % Sorghum stover 50 Bran/husks/hulls 18 Oilcakes 18 Molasses 8 Grains 4 Min./ Vit., yeast 2 Courtesy: Miracle Fodder and Feeds PVT LTD 16
    • Comparisons of higher and lower quality sorghum stover based total mixed rations in dairy buffalo Block High Block Low (52% dig) (47% dig) CP 17.2 % 17.1% ME (MJ/kg) 8.46 MJ/kg 7.37 MJ/kg DMI 19.7 kg/d 18.0 kg/d DMI per kg LW 3.6 % 3.3 % Milk Potential 16.6 kg/d 11.8 kg/d Anandan et al. (2009a) 17
    • Actual average across herd milk yields (3.61 kg/d)and scenario-dependent ME requirements for totalmilk production (81.8 million t/y) in India ME required (MJ x 109)Milk (kg/d) Maintenance Production Total3.61 (05/06) 1247.6 573.9 1821.56 (Scenario 1) 749.9 573.9 1323.89 (Scenario 2) 499.9 573.9 1073.812 (Scenario 3) 374.9 573.9 948.815 (Scenario 4) 299.9 573.9 873.9 18
    • Supplementation and feed processingoptions of sweet sorghum bagasse and response in sheep Control Concentrate Chaffed Mash Pellets Block SSBRLDMI (g/kg LW) 52.5 a 55.6 a 42.1 b 41.5 bADG (g / d) 132.7 a 130.4 a 89.5 b 81.3 bProcessing ($/t) 5.9 7.0 5.2 1.7Transport($/t/100km) 6.6 5.8 5.2 13.5 Anandan et al. (2012) 19
    • Traditional approach to increasing livestock productivity was piecemeal Past research has focused specific aspects of given value chains, commodities and country. Inputs & Services Production Processing Marketing Consumers Country A Inputs & Services Production Processing Marketing Consumers Country B Inputs & Services Production Processing Marketing Consumers Country C Inputs & Services Production Processing Marketing Consumers Country D
    • A value chain approach: a set of actors, transactions, information flows, andinstitutions that enable value to be delivered to the customer (Baker 2007)
    • Approach: Solution-driven R4D to achieve impact #1: Addressing the whole value chainR4D integrated to transform selected value chainsIn targeted commodities and countries. Consumers Major intervention with development partnersValue chain development team + research partners Strategic CRP 3.7 Cross-cutting Platforms • Technology Generation • Market Innovation • Targeting & ImpactINTERVENTIONS TO SCALE GLOBAL RESEARCH OUT REGIONALLY PUBLIC GOODS
    • Delivering the Livestock and Fish Program Structure: Six integrated components5 Targeting: Foresight, prioritization, environmental impacts Technology 4 Value chain development development:1 Health Consumers2 Genetics3 Feeds Commodity X in Country Y6 Cross-cutting: gender, impact, M&E, comms, capacitybuilding
    • Thank you for your attention! 24