Biomass pressures in mixed farms: Implications for livelihoods and ecosystems services in South Asia & Sub-Saharan Africa
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Biomass pressures in mixed farms: Implications for livelihoods and ecosystems services in South Asia & Sub-Saharan Africa

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Presented by Diego Valbuena, Olaf Erenstein, Sabine Homann-Kee Tui, Tahirou Abdoulaye, Alan Duncan, Bruno Gérard, and Nils Teufel at the Planet Under Pressure Conference, London, 26-29 March 2012

Presented by Diego Valbuena, Olaf Erenstein, Sabine Homann-Kee Tui, Tahirou Abdoulaye, Alan Duncan, Bruno Gérard, and Nils Teufel at the Planet Under Pressure Conference, London, 26-29 March 2012

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Biomass pressures in mixed farms: Implications for livelihoods and ecosystems services in South Asia & Sub-Saharan Africa Biomass pressures in mixed farms: Implications for livelihoods and ecosystems services in South Asia & Sub-Saharan Africa Presentation Transcript

  • Biomass pressures in mixed farmsImplications for livelihoods and ecosystems services in South Asia & Sub-Saharan Africa Planet Under Pressure, March 26th, 2012 London, UK Session: Food Security Diego Valbuena, Olaf Erenstein, Sabine Homann-Kee Tui, Tahirou Abdoulaye, Alan Duncan, Bruno Gérard, Nils Teufel
  • Mixed systems represent the livelihood of a large population of the developing world Population developing world: 3.773’200.000 Population developing world: 5.309’500.000 Source: Herrero et al. 2009
  • Crop residue are major resources for smallholder farmers Uses: feed, fuel, construction, cash and mulch/compost. Trade-offs of residue use? −animal feed: short-term household needs (animal traction, manure, food, savings, cash, culture), nutrient recycling −soil conservation (mulching): mid/long-term agricultural production, water efficiency, nutrient recycling (C storage)
  • Opening messageIn smallholder mixed farmsresources are often limited,creating pressure on biomass(residues). How to improveresidue use, enhancinglivelihoods now and ensuringlong-term sustainability?
  • Site & village selection Selection criteria site: intensification & market village: market & road households: land & livestock Niger-1, Fakara Malawi, Mzimba Niger-2, Maradi Mozambique, Changara Nigeria, Kano Zimbabwe, Nykayi Ethiopia-1, Kobo India-1, Haryana Ethiopia-2, Nekemte India-2, Udaipur Kenya, Kakamega Bangladesh, Dinajpur
  • To consider:• Dynamic systems but not always• Pressure residues farm: a. demand b. production• Options: intensification, market & co.
  • 1. Mixed systems are dynamic Population density Urbanization % total populationpeople/km2 Cereal yields Livestock production % relative to 1999-2001kg cereal/ha SLP-CR Regions* South Asia Sources: http://esa.un.org/unup/; http://fao.org * Southern Africa Weighted average of SLP selected countries East Africa West Africa
  • 2a. Potential demand for residues is diverse India-1 High Bangladesh Kenya Ethiopia-2 Ethiopia-1 Medium India-2 Zimbabwe Niger-2 Mozambique Nigeria Malawi Low Niger-1 source: Valbuena et al. in press
  • 2a. This demand is reflected in different residue use: cerealmultiple uses mostly fed 100% 80% mulch 60% construction fuel 40% 20% other (fuel, burnt, const) traded left/mulch 0% animal feed source: Valbuena et al. in press
  • 2a. Demand and use of residues is diverse: legumeNigeria Niger-1 Niger-2Kenya Residue use depend also on % sold quality, market and culture. % fed % other* * cooking, left in the soil
  • 2b. Intensification of crop production is related to potential demand High production: L-NG H-I1 H-B water access, market L-N2 inputs, H-K mechanisation M-E2 L-MW M-I2 L-N1 Limited production: often rainfed, variable access inputs & market, low L-Z mechanisation M-E1 L-MZ
  • 2b. Production and development pathways offer different options for rural regions Non-agricultural livelihood India-2 Mozambiqu e Market-oriented Keny a Niger-1 agriculture Nigeria Zimbabwe Ethiopia-1 Bangladesh Niger-2 India-1 Ethiopia-2 Malawi Subsistence farming
  • 2. Pressure on feed depends on crop production and communal resourceshigh quality feed < 3 months 3 – 6 months > 6 months * based one farmers’ perceptions. Feed sources include grazing, green and dry fodder
  • 2. Pressure on residues depend on both production and demand Potential Crop Agricultural Communal Feed ResiduePressure Sites demand production intensification resources shortages use mulch India-1, Kenya +++ +++ +++ - + burn Bangladesh Low + ++ ++ + + mulch Malawi MozambiqueMedium + + + + ++ grazed Zimbabwe ++ +/++ +/++ - +++ fed, fuel Ethiopia, India-2 High + + + + (far) +++ fed, fuel Niger, Nigeria
  • 3. Options: pressure on residues Potential: > soil conservation by mulching Needed: changes residue management Potential Crop Agricultural Communal Feed ResiduePressure Sites demand production intensification resources shortages use mulch India-1, Kenya +++ +++ +++ - + burn Bangladesh Low + ++ ++ + + mulch Malawi MozambiqueMedium + + + + ++ grazed Zimbabwe ++ +/++ +/++ - +++ fed, fuel Ethiopia, India-2 High + + + + (far) +++ fed, fuel Niger, Nigeria Needed: Needed: - Better use of communal land - More biomass - More biomass (seasonal) - Soil conservation
  • 3. Options need to go beyond biomass production Farm expansion Better link to markets Equity (land) Integration crop-livestock Water efficiency Intensification livestock Potential Crop Agricultural Communal Feed ResiduePressure Sites demand production intensification resources shortages use mulch India-1, Kenya +++ +++ +++ - + burn Bangladesh Low + ++ ++ + + mulch Malawi MozambiqueMedium + + + + ++ grazed Zimbabwe ++ +/++ +/++ - +++ fed, fuel Ethiopia, India-2 High + + + + (far) +++ fed, fuel Niger, Nigeria Better link to markets Intensification crop-livestock Integration crop-livestock Better link to markets Intensification crop-livestock Off-farm options Destocking
  • Closing messageMeta-analysis help to identify promising options andtrajectories for better residue use in specific sites.Still, more participatory,integrated & coordinate action-research is needed to implementoptions and fulfil short and longterm objectives for bothlivelihoods & ecosystem services.
  • SLP project: an on-going progress Stakeholder involvement (R&D): engaging stakeholders in looking at the challenges & options Household diversity: improved targeting of potential options Targeting action-oriented research: linking these diagnostics with impact oriented research