Variation and selection for cooking time in drought tolerant canning beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

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Presented by A.O. Warsame, P.M. Kimani and J.W. Mwangi (Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi) at the First …

Presented by A.O. Warsame, P.M. Kimani and J.W. Mwangi (Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi) at the First Bio-Innovate Regional Scientific Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 25-27 February 2013


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  • 1. Variation and Selection for Cooking time in Drought tolerant Canning Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Warsame, A. O., P. M. Kimani, and J.W. Mwangi Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi First Bio-Innovate Regional Scientific Conference United Nations Conference Centre (UNCC-ECA) Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 25-27 February 2013University of Nairobi ISO 9001:2008 1 Certified http://www.uonbi.ac.ke
  • 2. Contents Introduction Materials and Methods Results &Discussion Conclusions AcknowledgementsUniversity of Nairobi ISO 9001:2008 2 Certified http://www.uonbi.ac.ke
  • 3. Introduction Common beans is one of most import crops in eastern Africa (Pachico, 1993; Kimani, 2001) Cooking time of dry bean is an important trait related to its utilization (Iyer et al., 1980; Miles and Sonde, 2004; Elia, 2003). Bean cooking time can vary from ½ hour to 8 hours (Miles and Sonde, 2004). In Kenya, traditional bean varieties need 2-3 hours to cook (Kimani, 2001). Cooking time is import for both canning industry and household consumption. For processors, long cooking is associated with higher energy requirements and lower processor yields (Van Loggerenberg, 2004). Urban consumers spend more money on expensive fuels. Rural households use large quantities of firewood and spend time in searching it.University of Nairobi ISO 9001:2008 3 Certified http://www.uonbi.ac.ke
  • 4. Continued…… Thus, faster-cooking bean cultivars would:  save energy and deliver higher processor yield for canning industry  save money spent on kerosene, charcoal, electricity, and natural gas for or rural and urban consumers.  Save forests. However, at present there is a little information on fast cooking bean varieties in the region. Processing industry in Kenya depend on single variety (Mex-142) which is highly susceptible to rust and anthracnose, and is low yielding. Therefore, there is need for new faster cooking bean varieties which combine other important traits like disease resistance, drought tolerance and other agronomic traits, and also meet consumer preferences for seed colors.University of Nairobi ISO 9001:2008 4 Certified http://www.uonbi.ac.ke
  • 5. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the cooking time of advanced canning bean lines previously selected for drought tolerance, resistance to diseases and other agronomic traitsUniversity of Nairobi ISO 9001:2008 5 Certified http://www.uonbi.ac.ke
  • 6. Material and Methods Bean seeds used in this study were obtained from Grain Legume Research Program of the University of Nairobi, which fall in 7 market Market class Number of classes. lines Mex142 was used as check Red mottled 22 155 Bean lines of diverse market classes were Red kidneys 23 grown and selected at Kabete Field station, Speckled Sugars 22 University of Nairobi during the 2012 long-rain season season. Pintos and Cariocas 22 Seeds were soaked for 16 hours and cooked using Matson Bean cooker (Matson, 1946) and Small reds 22 trial was repeated three times. Navys 24 Analyses of variance (ANOVA) appropriate to a Mixed Colors 20 randomized complete-block design was performed using GenStat 13.3 (VSN International Ltd., UK.) at significance level Total 155 (0.01).University of Nairobi ISO 9001:2008 6 Certified http://www.uonbi.ac.ke
  • 7. Continued…. Small red Selection Red in the mottled field Pinto Red Soaking kidney Carioca Matson Speckled Yellow Bean sugar Cooker Tan NavyUniversity of Nairobi ISO 9001:2008 7 Certified http://www.uonbi.ac.ke
  • 8. Results Analysis of variance showed that there were highly significant (P<0.01) genotypic differences for cooking time within and among market classes.University of Nairobi ISO 9001:2008 8 Certified http://www.uonbi.ac.ke
  • 9. Fig 1. Cooking time of advanced Red Mottled canning bean lines selected at Kabete Field Station, 2012 50 46.3 45 42.9 41.9 42.1 41.9 43 40.7 40.7 41.6 38.9 38.3 40 36.1 35.8 36.3 34.3 34.9 34.4 35 33.1 33 32.2 31.8 31.4 30.6 Minutes 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 GenotypeMean 37.48LSD (0.05) 2.801SE 0.567CV (%) 1.5 University of Nairobi ISO 9001:2008 9 Certified http://www.uonbi.ac.ke
  • 10. Fig 2. Cooking time of advanced Red Kidney canning bean lines selected at Kabete Field Station, 2012 55 48.8 50 46.3 45 43 42.4 41.6 40.9 41.4 39.1 39.5 38.7 38.7 40 36.6 37.8 35.6 35.2 35 32.6 32.1 32.1 31.3 31.1 31.8 29.6 27.8 Minutes 30 27.1 25 20 15 10 5 0 Mean 36.77 Line LSD (0.05) 2.973 SE 0.265 CV (%) 3.7University of Nairobi ISO 9001:2008 10 Certified http://www.uonbi.ac.ke
  • 11. Fig 3. Cooking time of advanced speckled sugars canning bean lines selected at Kabete Field 60 Station, 2012 51.53 50.83 50 43.27 41.1 41.73 39.03 38.7 39.7 40 34.87 37.6 35.27 36.1 35.3 34.73 Minutes 33.4 33.73 32.43 32.17 30.4 31 30.43 29.67 30.13 30 20 10 0 Mean 36.66 LSD (0.05) 3.797 Line SE 0.033 CV (%) 2.1University of Nairobi ISO 9001:2008 11 Certified http://www.uonbi.ac.ke
  • 12. Fig 4. Cooking time of advanced Navy Bean lines selected at Kabete Field Station, 2012 60.0 49.8 48.9 48.9 50.0 43.3 41.7 41.3 42.0 40.5 39.3 39.3 40.0 37.9 35.3 35.9 36.3 36.4 34.0 34.6 Minutes 33.8 32.2 31.8 32.0 30.4 29.6 30.0 24.4 20.0 10.0 0.0 Mean 37.21 LSD(0.05) 3.836 Line SE 2.337 CV(%) 1.5University of Nairobi ISO 9001:2008 12 Certified http://www.uonbi.ac.ke
  • 13. Fig 5. Cooking time of advanced Small Red canning bean lines selected at Kabete Field Station, 2012 60.0 52.4 50.0 41.8 42.3 40.8 39.6 40.5 38.7 38.3 40.0 36.9 35.4 35.4 35.3 35.1Minutes 33.7 32.5 34.5 31.6 32.0 31.2 28.7 29.8 30.6 30.0 27.1 20.0 10.0 0.0 Mean 37.21 Line LSD(0.05) 3.836 SE 2.337 CV(%) 1.5
  • 14. Conclusions Results of this work showed significant variation in cooking among bean lines across market classes. More than 60 lines from different market classes cooked faster than the industry standard Mexican-142. This genetic variation for cooking time, can combined with drought tolerance, resistance to diseases and other agronomic traits. Such lines will save time, energy for rural and urban poor in cities and processors. A broad range of Consumer preferences can be met. Increased utilization of beans and income for farmers.University of Nairobi ISO 9001:2008 14 Certified http://www.uonbi.ac.ke
  • 15. Acknowledgements The University of Nairobi Bio-Innovate-Africa program Beans for Climate Change Consortium Supervisors Bean Program Technical staff-UON Governments of Kenya, Sweden-Sida and SomaliaUniversity of Nairobi ISO 9001:2008 15 Certified http://www.uonbi.ac.ke
  • 16. THANK YOUUniversity of Nairobi ISO 9001:2008 16 Certified http://www.uonbi.ac.ke