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Breeding beans for nutritional quality, drought tolerance and productivity in Kenya
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Breeding beans for nutritional quality, drought tolerance and productivity in Kenya

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Presented by Paul Kimani, A. Warsame, P.K. Waidhima, M. Njiru and J.W. Mwangi at the First Bio-Innovate Regional Scientific Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 25-27 February 2013

Presented by Paul Kimani, A. Warsame, P.K. Waidhima, M. Njiru and J.W. Mwangi at the First Bio-Innovate Regional Scientific Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 25-27 February 2013

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    Breeding beans for nutritional quality, drought tolerance and productivity in Kenya Breeding beans for nutritional quality, drought tolerance and productivity in Kenya Presentation Transcript

    • Breeding beans for nutritional quality, drought tolerance and productivity in KenyaPaul Kimani1, A. Warsame1, P. K. Waidhima2, M. Njiru2 and J.W. Mwangi1 1Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi 2 Trufoods Ltd Nairobi, Kenya First Bio-Innovate Regional Scientific Conference United Nations Conference Centre (UNCC-ECA) Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 25-27 February 2013
    • Contents• The Hidden Hunger problem• Objectives & Strategy• Population development and Selection• Results highlights• Future Directions• Acknowledgements 2
    • The ‘Hidden Hunger’ problem• Micronutrient deficiency affects over 2 billion people in the world• Serious health challenge affecting vast areas of Africa- mainly resource poor women and children• Fe, Zn, protein and Vitamin A deficiencies most frequent• Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) prevalence : – Eastern/Southern Africa: 6- 88% – West/Central Africa: 7-58% – Lowest: 8 % Ethiopia – Highest: 67% Tanzania, 69% Burundi and 88% in Malawi (IDRC, 2001)• Biofortified cultivars are probably the most effective, sustainable and potentially long-lasting strategy for reducing micronutrient deficiencies in Africa – Breeding programs can introduce and disseminate new bean cultivars with natural ability to concentrate high iron and zinc in their seeds to ensure:  Regular access  Low cost  Sustainable  Main demerit: cost of cultivar development 3
    • Objectives & StrategyGoal: Contribute to reduction in micronutrient malnutrition (‘hidden hunger) in SSA which affects more than 2 billion people world wideObjectives:• Transfer high Fe , Zn trait to commercial cultivars and landraces• Combine with resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses: root rots, angular leaf spot, anthracnose, bean common mosaic virus, common bacterial blight, drought tolerance and canning qualityStrategy:• Crosses among mineral dense lines and sources of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses with commercial cultivars Mineral x (biotic/abiotic x commercial cultivars)• Screen for high mineral density in advanced lines and populations segregating for resistance to multiple resistance to biotic and abiotic stress factors and farmer/consumer preferred traits 4
    • Population development & Selection • 47 Population Bulks advanced to F4 generation • Fe & Zn Mineral analysis2009-2010 • Disease screening F1-F4 • LR 2011: Disease screening & SPS • SR 2011: Drought evaluation at Kabete Field Station 2011 F5-F6 • LR 2012: Drought testing under stress and non-stress 2012 conditions at Kabete and Thika • SR 2012: AYT at Kabete, Thika, Meru, Nakuru and Tigoni F7-F8 5
    • New F2 and F3 PopulationsCross No of F2 and F3 • KAB – single and double cross Populations male gametes with genes for: – Resistance to biotic stressesMLB 49 89A X KAB 31 10 – DroughtMaharagi Soja x KAB 22 7 – Growth habitNakaja X KAB 21 – Tolerance to low soil fertility 8 – Commercial grain typesAND 620 x KAB 29 6 • Fe & Zn sources- 2800 landraces,Simama x KAB 15 7 accessions, varieties, breeding lines screened for Fe & Zn (2001-2008)Gofta x KAB 36 9 – AND 620 and Maharagi Soja had the highest Fe concentration acrossTOTAL 47 locations and seasons (>70ppm) – VNB 81010 had the highest Zn KAB male gametic combinations- 39 concentration in all test sites and seasons (>35 ppm) 6
    • 47 New Biofort populations with Multiple Stress resistanceCrossNo Genotype advanced to F4 generation at Kabete Pedigree Stand at Yield harvest /plot [g]1639 MLB 49/89A x KAB 44 MLB 49/89A (CANADIAN WONDER x MEX 54)F1 // (CANADIAN WONDER x VUNINKINGI)F1 46 393.261640 GOFTA x KAB 37 GOFTA (LYAMUNGU 85 x RWR 719)//(LYAMUNGU 85x SCAM 80CM/15) F1 x UMUBANO) 34 328.69 GOFTA (SELIAN 97 x MEX 54//SELIAN 97 x VUNINKINGI)FI x (SELIAN 97 x VUNINKINGI//SELIAN1641 GOFTA x KAB 49 97 x RWR 719)F1 31 230.821642 SIMAMA x KAB 48 SIMAMA (CANADIAN WONDER x MEX 54 // CANADIAN WONDER X VUNINKINI)F1 x AND 1055) 34 156.891643 AND 620 x KAB 27 AND 620 (LYAMUNGU 85 x VUNINKINGI)//(LYAMUNGU 85 x MEX 54)F1 x RWR 719) 46 349.391644 AND 620 x KAB 25 AND 620 (LYAMUNGU 85 x VUNINKINGI)//(LYAMUNGU 85 x RWR 719)F1 x MEX 54) 44 442.441645 AND 620 x KAB 48 AND 620 (CANADIAN WONDER / MEX 54 x AND 1062)F1 x UMUBANO) 60 334.871646 MLB 49/89A x KAB 29 MLB 49/89A (LYAMUNGU 85 x VUNINKINGI)F1 xAND 1062) x MEX 54) 30 116.361647 GOFTA x KAB 25 GOFTA (LYAMUNGU 85 x VUNINKINGI)//(LYAMUNGU 85 x RWR 719)F1 x MEX 54) 41 206.321648 NAKAJA x KAB 27 NAKAJA (LYAMUNGU 85 x VUNINKINGI)//(LYAMUNGU 85 x MEX 54)F1 x RWR 719) 66 387.251650 MLB 49/89A x KAB 30 MLB 49/89A (LYAMUNGU 85 x VUNINKINGI)F1 x ( MEX 54 x G5686)F1 41 180.651652 NAKAJA x KAB 30 NAKAJA (LYAMUNGU 85 x VUNINKINGI)F1 x ( MEX 54 x G5686)F1 38 376.231653 GOFTA x KAB 26 GOFTA (LYAMUNGU 85 x VUNINKINGI)//(LYAMUNGU 85 x MEX 54)F1 x AND 1055) 37 243.861654 GOFTA x KAB 30 GOFTA (LYAMUNGU 85 x VUNINKINGI)F1 x ( MEX 54 x G5686)F1 39 284.081655 MLB 49/89A x KAB 37 MLB 49/89A (LYAMUNGU 85 x RWR 719)//(LYAMUNGU 85x SCAM 80CM/15) F1 x MEX 54) 36 302.951656 MLB 49/89A x KAB 31 MLB 49/89A (LYAMUNGU 85 x VININKINGI)//(LYAMUNGU 85x SCAM 80CM/15) F1 x MEX 54) 45 388.34 SIMAMA (SELIAN 97 x MEX 54//SELIAN 97 x VUNINKINGI)FI x (SELIAN 97 x1658 SIMAMA x KAB 49 VUNINKINGI//SELIAN 97 x RWR 719)F1 30 223.081660 MLB 49/98A x KAB 15 MLB 49/89A (GLP 2 x VUNINKINGI)F1 x (GLP 2 x MEX 54)F1 40 341.151661 MLB 49/98A x KAB 27 MLB 49/89A (LYAMUNGU 85 x VUNINKINGI)//(LYAMUNGU 85 x MEX 54)F1 x RWR 719) 30 251.541662 NAKAJA x KAB 36 NAKAJA (LYAMUNGU 85 x RWR 719)//(LYAMUNGU 85x SCAM 80CM/15) F1 x UMUBANO) 41 337.781663 GOFTA x KAB 48 GOFTA/[ (CANADIAN WONDER / MEX 54 x AND 1062)F1 x UMUBANO) * *1664 SIMAMA x KAB 35 SIMAMA (LYAMUNGU 85 x UMUBANO)//(LYAMUNGU 85 x MEX 54)F1 x RWR 719) 26 162.781665 G 2333 x G 10474 G 2333 x G 10474 * * AND 620 (SELIAN 97 x MEX 54//SELIAN 97 x VUNINKINGI)FI x (SELIAN 97 x1666 AND 620 x KAB 49 VUNINKINGI//SELIAN 97 x RWR 719)F1 49 246.19 SIMAMA (SELIAN 97 x MEX 54//SELIAN 97 x VUNINKINGI)FI x (SELIAN 97 x1667 SIMAMA x KAB 49 VUNINKINGI//SELIAN 97 x RWR 719)F1 19 149.761668 MLB 49/89A x KAB 35 MLB 49/89A (LYAMUNGU 85 x UMUBANO)//(LYAMUNGU 85 x MEX 54)F1 x RWR 719) 28 146.381669 MLB 49/89A x KAB 48 MLB 49/89A (CANADIAN WONDER / MEX 54 x AND 1062)F1 x UMUBANO) 23 119.551670 NAKAJA x KAB 30 NAKAJA (LYAMUNGU 85 x VUNINKINGI)F1 x ( MEX 54 x G5686)F1 30 277.571671 NAKAJA x KAB 22 NAKAJA (LYAMUNGU 85 x RWR 719) F1//(LYAMUNGU 85x SCAM 80CM/15) F1 23 187.821673 AND 620 x BRB 85 AND 620 x BRB 85 42 231.53 AND 620 (SELIAN 97 x MEX 54//SELIAN 97 x VUNINKINGI)FI x (SELIAN 97 x1674 AND 620 x KAB 49 VUNINKINGI//SELIAN 97 x RWR 719)F1 38 149.5
    • Variation for Fe & Zn in early generationsPopulation/ Fe (ppm) Zn (ppm) Proteinmale gamete (%)KAB 2 30-105 10-40 18-26KAB 5 55-125 10-35 19-24KAB 6 30-130 10-55 17-24KAB 10 30-115 10-45 19-28KAB 11 40-115 10-40 20-28KAB 12 35-100 10-40 19-24KAB 13 50-115 10-60 21-29 Mineral analyses •Wet digestion (perchloric acid and nitric acid digestion) •AAS mineral determination
    • Five New populations were outstanding for vigour, drought tolerance and yield potential Fig 1. Mean grain yield of F7 lines from population BF08-01 grown at Thika and Kabete, LR 2012 4000 3536 3562 3412 3338 3315 3500 3197 3110 3082 3016 2991 3000 2820 2523 2500kg ha-1 2000 1707 1581 1500 1245 1297 1235 1000 500 0 Line/Genotype 9
    • BF08-03 Fig 1. Mean grain yield of the top F7 lines from population BF08-03 grown at Thika and Kabete, LR 2012 3500 3076 3011 3007 2961 3000 2832 2746 2730 2538 2468Grain yield kg ha-1 2500 2000 1707 1581 1500 1297 1245 1235 1000 500 0 Line/Genotype 10
    • BF08-07 Fig 3. Mean grain yield of the top F7 lines from population BF08-07 grown at Thika and Kabete, LR 2012 5000 4577 4543 4336 4369 4500 3980 4000 3741 3845 3556Yield , kg ha-1 3500 3306 3079 3018 3000 2635 2500 2000 1707 1581 1500 1245 1297 1235 1000 500 0 Line/Genotype 11
    • BF08-13 Fig 4. Mean grain yield of the top F7 lines from population BF08-13 grown at Thika and Kabete, LR 2012 4000 3500 3291 3162Yield, kg ha-1 3043 3077 3000 2833 2833 2784 2499 2500 2000 1707 1581 1500 1245 1297 1235 1000 500 0 Line/Genotype 12
    • BF08-16Fig 4. Mean grain yield of the top F7 lines from population BF08-16 grown at Thika and Kabete, LR 2012 4000 3411 3500 3103 3090 3062 2870 2920 2837 3000 2817 2652 2574 2568 2464 2407 2500 Yield, kg ha-1 2000 1707 1581 1500 1245 1297 1235 1000 500 0 Line/Genotype 13
    • Outstanding lines were evaluated in Advanced Yield Trials during SR 2012 AYT, Thika 30 Nov 2012 AYT, Meru 1 Dec 2012
    • New Biofort Lines at Kabete Field Station, 20 Feb 2013 15
    • Future DirectionsNew dry bean varieties meant for canning should possess good canning qualities while ensuring uniform and complete water uptake in order to prevent• Validate Nutritional value (micronutrients) of the new drought tolerant, disease resistant and high yielding Second Generation Biofort lines - Select >90 ppm Fe and >35 ppm Zn - First generation Biofort >70 ppm Fe and 30 ppm Zn released• Evaluate cooking time, water absorption and canning quality• Submit for National Performance Trials –for validation and formal release• Produce certified seed and disseminate with partners 16
    • Acknowledgements• Governments of Kenya and Sweden• University of Nairobi• Bean Program Technical staff• TRUFOODS LTD• BioInnovate/SIDA• Ministry of Agriculture• Farmer Groups PVS for drought tolerant canning beans in Mwea
    • THANK YOU