Advances in breeding bean for drought tolerance and canning quality in Kenya

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Presented by Paul Kimani, R.D. Narla, A. Warsame, B. Buxton, P.K. Waidhima, M. Njiru and J.W. Mwangi at the First Bio-Innovate Regional Scientific Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 25-27 February 2013


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Advances in breeding bean for drought tolerance and canning quality in Kenya

  1. 1. Advances in Breeding bean for Drought tolerance and Canning quality in KenyaPaul Kimani1, R.D. Narla1, A. Warsame1, B. Buxton1, P. K. Waidhima2, M. Njiru2 and J.W. Mwangi1 1Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection,College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi 2 Trufoods Ltd Nairobi, Kenya First Bio-Innovate Regional Scientific Conference United Nations Conference Centre (UNCC-ECA) Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 25-27 February 2013
  2. 2. Contents• Drought tolerance • Mesoamerican • Andean• Mechanisms of drought tolerance • Shoot traits • Root traits• Participatory selection for drought tolerance• Canning Quality• Partnership for Seed production and Dissemination• Conclusions and future directions• Acknowledgements
  3. 3. Rationale for Breeding Canning Beans Adapted to Biotic and Abiotic stresses Process  Current variety (Mex 142) more than 50 years old, susceptible to biotic and abiotic stresses 445 lines  Many farmers stopped growing the variety Agronomic • Processing industry not able to meet demand potential- yield, e.g. 300 t /year for Trufoods diseases, vigour • Erratic supply and poor quality raw materials growth habit • Industry demanded better varieties • Demand for fast cooking or pre-cooked products –high energy costs 150 lines • Changing eating habits -wider range of Drought preferences with urbanization tolerance & farmer • Focus on 7 market classes for canning industry preferences • Fast cooking- for direct consumption Canning • Pre-cooked products and • Canned products 20-25 lines Nutritional quality 3
  4. 4. Gene pools and Market ClassesAndean Mesoamerican Red Small Navy mottled Red Pinto Carioca Red kidney Tan Yellow Speckled sugar Green yellow BEIGE 4
  5. 5. Structure of Breeding ProgramThree parallel Breeding Streams:Stream 1: Advanced lines of a genetically diverse lines  Objective: drought tolerance, yield potential and canning quality  447 Mesoamerican and Andean linesStream 2: Biofortified varieties combining high iron(>90 ppm) and zinc (>35 ppm) multiple stress to biotic and biotic stresses  Based on 47 new populations segregating for multiple traitsStream 3: Marker assisted gamete selection for simultaneous selection for resistance to biotic and abiotic stress factors, marketable grain types  Focus markers and diseases: anthracnose, angular leaf spot, root rots, common bacterial blight, bean common mosaic virus 5
  6. 6. New drought tolerant Mesoamerican lines 2000 DMC11-10 Mean=903.9 DNB11-07 1800 LSD=148.3 •New DroughtGrain yield in kg ha-1 under no stress DNB11-06 tolerant Navy, 1600 DNB11-15 DMC11-01 DSR11-24 Small Red and DMC11-24 1400 DSR11-13 Mixed colour MEX142 DSR11-20 lines are better 1200 GLPX92 DSR11-19 yielding than 1000 DSR11-05 TIO CANELA local and international 800 DMC11-15 GLP585 checks in DMC11-08 600 KATB1 drought Mean=753.2 400 LDS=148.3 stressed and 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 non-stressed Grain yield in kg ha-1 under drought stress conditions
  7. 7. New drought tolerant Andean lines 900 •New Drought tolerant 800 DSS 11-04 DRM 11-03 •Red mottled, • Red kidneys DSS 11-17 •Speckled sugarDrought stress yield (kg ha-1) 700 DRK 11-05 DRK 11-22 DRM 11-17 lines are better 600 GLP 1004 11-01 DPC DRK 11-19 KAT 56 DRK 11-15 DSS 11-16 11-10 DRK DRK 11-18 yielding than DPC 11-03 Kabete Super 11-16 DRK 500 DSS 11-01 11-21 DRK local checks in DRK 11-23 Super Rosococo DRM 11-15 KSB DRM 11-18 DRM 11-13 drought stressed 400 GLP 24 GLP 92 KRK KAT 69 and non-stressed Miezi Mbili conditions at 300 GLP 2 Kabete and Kenya Umoja Kenya Wonder New Rosococo Mwea 200 Kenya Early 100 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 Reduced stress yield (kg ha-1) RS vs DS RS vs DS DRM 11-03 vs DS: 859.45 RS
  8. 8. Mechanisms of Drought tolerance- Shoot traits Plant traits Irrigated Rainfed (Stress) Canopy biomass (kg/ha) 0.64*** 0.25** Pod harvest index (%) 0.62*** 0.40*** Grain harvest index (%) 0.50*** 0.39*** Pod partitioning index (%) 0.57*** 0.89*** Pod wall biomass proportion (%) 0.26** 0.19* Stem biomass reduction (%) -0.18* 0.32** Total chlorophyll content (SPAD) 0.24** 0.18** *, **, *** Significant at p<0.05, p<0.01 and p<0.001 probability levels respectively.
  9. 9. Mechanisms of Drought tolerance- Root traitsFramework for root studies at Kabete Field Station, No Stress treatment Drought stressed plants January 2013 Tagging a young spread leaf for measurements A tagged young spread leaf for measurements Measuring chlorophyll content on leaf using SPAD
  10. 10. Stressed PVS Irrigated PVS Participatory selectionplots, Mwea plots, Mwea for drought tolerance •Mwea and Kabete for two seasons • Gender disaggregated •Selection under stress and no stress plots •Ribbon method for preferred and non-preferred line Key traits for farmers: • Yield •Drought tolerance •Earliness •Marketability •Fast cooking •Taste •Plant type •Non shattering •Foliage
  11. 11. PVS for drought tolerant lines conducted at Kabete in 2012 Bean program staff explains objective and technique of selection Refreshments Preferred line Rejected lineFarmers select at Kabete Field Station, March 2012 11
  12. 12. Selection for Multiple Disease Resistance BCB11-34 is a small BCB 11-196, a small red white (navy canning showed high degree of bean ) which showed resistance to anth, angular high degree of leafspot, BCMV and CBB at resistance to ALS, Kabete during the LR 2012-12- anth, BCMV and CBB 15(picture taken 10 July 2012). at Kabete during the Note adjacent lines were LR 2012. Note that devastated by the disease. neighbouring lines were destroyed by the disease. BCB 11-162 is highly BCB 11-400 is disease disease resistant red resistant red mottled line . kidney line with good Note adjacent lines were vigour at Kabete, LR severely damaged by 2012 diseases at Kabet LR 2012 Photo: 10 July 2012 at Photo : 10 July 2012 at 4.23 7.26 PM PM 12
  13. 13. Summary of Advanced lines with Multiple Disease resistance and high yield potential Market Class Lines select for MDR Resistances Red mottled 21 ALS, root rots, BCMV, anthracnose, CBB Red kidney 23 Speckled sugar 17 Navy 24 Small Red 22 Pinto/carioca 19 Mixed colours 24• Lines currently in AYT at Kabete, Thika, Meru, Nakuru and Tigoni 13
  14. 14. Fig 1. Water absorption by advanced navy bean canning bean lines over a 16 hour period. 140.0 BCB11-10 BCB11-35 BCB11-108 120.0 BCB11-14 BCB11-30 BCB11-33 100.0 94.9 BCB11-34 89.9 87.5 BCB11-35 BCB11-355Percent water uptake 79.0 80.0 BCB11-40 BCB11-47 BCB11- BCB11-476 60.0 48 BCB11-48 Mexican 142 BCB11-49 44.1 BCB11-52 40.0 BCB11-55 BCB11-58 BCB11-62 20.0 BCB11-69 BCB11-75 0.0 BCB11-80 0.0 BCB11-87 0H 3H 6H 9H 12H 16H BCB11-9 Hours of soaking
  15. 15. Fig 5. Water absorption of advanced small red lines after soaking for 16 hours. 120.0 111.8 108.1 107.5 110.0 105.2 104.7 105.2 105.5 106.6 101.3 102.2 99.7 100.0 92.8 93.9 91.8 91.6 90.0 86.1Percent water absorption 80.7 80.0 75.0 70.0 65.0 60.0 56.6 50.0 50.0 46.0 40.0 30.0 25.5 20.0 10.0 0.0 Genotype
  16. 16. Fig 10. Water absorption trends of advanced red kidney bean lines soaked over 16 hours140 BCB11-158 BCB11-159120 BCB11-162 BCB11-163 BCB11-166 BCB11-168100 BCB11-171 BCB11-173 BCB11-174 80 BCB11-175 BCB11-176 BCB11-285 60 BCB11-325 BCB11-327 BCB11-337 BCB11-342 40 BCB11-468 Mexi 142 BCB11-492 BCB11-500 20 BCB11-503 BCB11-509 BCB11-522 0 Mex142 0H 3H 6H 9H 12 H 16H
  17. 17. Fig 12. Water uptake patterns of advanced red mottled lines over 16 hours 130 BCB11-130 120 BCB11-132 110 BCB11-133 BCB 11-132 BCB11-135 100 BCB11-142 89.7 90 86.1 BCB11-143 82.7 BCB11-144 80Percent water uptake 72.7 BCB11-145 BCB11-290 70 BCB11-314 60 BCB11-324 BCB11-334 50 BCB11-345 39.7 40 BCB11-347 BCB11-400 30 BCB11-413 Mex 142 BCB11-433 20 BCB11-445 10 BCB11-464 0 BCB11-470 0 BCB11-523 0H 3H 6H 9H 12 H 16H Mex142 Genotype
  18. 18. Fig 14. Water absorption patterns of advanced speckled sugar lines soaked for 16 hours. 120 BCB 11- 217 BCB11-204 BCB11-209 100 BCB11-217 91.9 90.0 87.5 BCB11-269 82.7Percent water absorption BCB11-282 80 BCB11-303 BCB11-336 BCB11-377 60 BCB11-380 46.6 BCB11-386 BCB11-390 40 Mex 142 BCB11-393 BCB11-414 BCB11-495 20 BCB11-498 BCB11-501 0 BCB11-507 0 0H 3H 6H 9H 12 H 16H BCB11-530 Mex142 Genotype
  19. 19. Certified Seed Production: Technology licensing with Simlaw Seed Ltd concludedSeason Category of Seed Quantity (kg) RemarksLR 2011 Nucleus 350 Stage I, II Breeder 4,129 Isiolo, Naivasha, Kabete Basic 4,562 Total 9,041SR 2011 Nucleus 800 Stage I, II and III Breeder 8,000 Used by Simlaw Ltd as pre-basic and planting certified seed Basic 12,667 Total 21,467LR 2012 Nucleus 1.2 ha Kabete (stages I,II andIII) Breeder 7 ha Kabete (SEMI) Basic 73 ha Diverse areas (see semi-annul report) Certified 100 Simlaw Production Dept 19
  20. 20. Capacity Building• Training seed producers• Scientists and technologists on assessment of canning quality• Seed entrepreneurs and managers• Graduate students- breeding & Biotech, FST, Agron, Pathology• Infrastructure- repair of canning plant, irrigation facilites• Marker assisted selection- real time PCR 20
  21. 21. 8 May 2012Pilot food processing Plant-CAVS Blanching Seaming Retort Cooling system Recorder Steam generation and regulation
  22. 22. Future Directions• Complete lab canning testing• Industrial canning- grain production• NPT• Fe-Zn analysis• Root studies• Graduate students- complete work• Bio-innovate conference• Publications 22
  23. 23. ConclusionsNew dry bean varieties meant for canning should possess good canning qualities while ensuring uniform and complete water uptake in order to prevent• New dry bean varieties meant for canning should possess good canning qualities while ensuring uniform and complete water uptake in order to prevent further expansion of beans in the can (2,3).• The new advanced drought tolerant dry bean varieties posses the physical suitability for the canning process.• Water uptake, percent volume increase and cookability after soaking are critical characteristics of dry beans destined for the canning industry.• All genotypes took up at least 90% water and qualify for canning purposes, with line in six market classes picking up water and cooking faster than the control.• The varieties compared well, some even better, with the control navy bean variety, the Mexican 142 which is imported and is popular for its taste and short cooking time.• These new varieties can be grown locally thus have a potential in promoting local farmers economically.• wit Conclusions• New dry bean varieties meant for canning should possess good canning qualities while ensuring uniform and complete water uptake in order to prevent further expansion of beans in the can (2,3). The eight new advanced drought tolerant dry bean varieties posses the physical suitability for the canning process. Water uptake, percent volume increase and cookability after soaking are critical characteristics of dry beans destined for the canning industry. All genotypes took up at least 90% water and qualify for canning purposes, with six of them picking up water and cooking faster than the control.• The varieties compared well, some even better, with the control navy bean variety, the Mexican 142 which is imported and is popular for its taste and short cooking time. These new varieties can be grown locally thus have a potential in promoting local farmers economically.• h six of them picking up water and cooking faster than the control. 23• The varieties compared well, some even better, with the control navy bean variety, the Mexican 142 which is imported and is popular for its
  24. 24. Acknowledgements• Government of Kenya• UON• BioInnovate/SIDA• Bean Program Technical staff• TRUFOODS LTD• Ministry of Agriculture• Farmer Groups• Graduate students PVS for drought tolerant canning beans in Mwea
  25. 25. THANK YOU

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