Achievements and ongoing work on biopesticides at
ICIPE—Some examples and lessons learnt
Jean Nguya K. Maniania, Sevgan Su...
Presentation outline
 Arthropods: challenges to food security and development
 Control strategies
 Microbial insecticid...
Arthropod pests: challenges to food security and
development
Thrips: F. occidentalis, T. tabaci, M.
sdojesti
Fruitflies: C...
Diamondback moth: Plutella xylostella
African bollworm: Helicoverpa armigera
African armyworm: Spodoptea exempta
Desert an...
Disease vectors: challenges to food security and
development
Tsetse flies
Mosquitoes
Ticks
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
53 57 65 67 68 74 78 80 81 82 83 85 86 88
Year
No.pesticides
DBM resistance to pesticides (Georghiou, ...
Drawbacks
 Resistance to synthetic chemical pesticides
 Toxicity to users, consumers and non-target
organisms
 Chemical...
Insect pathogens: alternatives!
Virus Bacillus
thuringiensis
Nematode Fungi
Protozoa
Microbial initiatives in Africa
Pathogen Host insect Crop/habitat Country
Beauveria
bassiana
Acridids
Chilo partellus
Cere...
Microbial initiatives in Africa (Cont’d)
Pathogen Host insect Crop/habitat Country
Nuclear
polyhedrosis virus
(NPV)
Agroti...
Why????
 Despite technically successful projects, microbial insecticides have
ever made it to the market place in Africa....
Active Substance Product Name Target(s) Manufacturer/Registrant
Bacillus Thuringiensis
var. Kurstaki (Btk)
BIOLEP WP Wetta...
Active Substance Product Name Target(s) Manufacturer/Registrant
Beauveria bassiana
Strain GHA 1.15%w/w
BIO-POWER 1.15WP
We...
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 DAT 7 DAT 14 DAT 21 DAT
No.thrips/20cuttings
Control Metarhizium Insecticide
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 DAT 7 DAT...
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1 week 2 weeks 3 weeks 4 weeks 5 weeks
Numberofmites/cm2
Week after treatment
Con 1
Con 2
Con 3
Fun...
Participatory suppression trials with mango growers at Nthagaiya (Kenya)
M. anisopliae ICIPE 69: component of fruit fly IP...
Intervention impact - fruit infestation
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Mazoferm +
Biopesticide
Mazoferm Biopesticide Control
Fruit...
Establishment of Pilot Commercial Processing Plant For Food Bait Production
for the Management of Fruit Flies in Kenya
■ U...
International Centre of Insect Physiology and
Ecology (icipe)
icipe’s Duduville Headquarters
Partnership with private sect...
 Funding: short-life funded projects
catering only for isolation, screening
and field trials.
 Lack of commitment from t...
 Lack of biopesticide regulatory framework.
 Biopesticide registration is submitted to the same regulation as chemical
p...
Regulations governing biopesticide use
Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats
analysis (SWOT)
 Environmentally benin
 Safe to non-target organisms
 ...
 Slow speed of kill
 Short persistence
 Highly specific
 High cost
 Small market
 Some must be produced in vivo
Weak...
Diachasmimorpha longicaudata
Addressing issues of high costs and persistence
Autodissemination devices: Use of host chemic...
Acknowledgements
Dr. P. Nana
Dr. F. Nchu
Dr. S. Niassy
Dr. S. Dimbi
Dr. V. Wekesa
Mr. D. Mfuti
Prof. D. Bugeme
Achievements and ongoing work on biopesticides at ICIPE—Some examples and lessons learnt
Achievements and ongoing work on biopesticides at ICIPE—Some examples and lessons learnt
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Achievements and ongoing work on biopesticides at ICIPE—Some examples and lessons learnt

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Presented by Jean Nguya K. Maniania, Sevgan Subramanian and Sunday Ekesi at the Regional Experts Workshop on Development, Regulation and Use of Bio-pesticides in East Africa, Nairobi, Kenya, 22–23 May 2014

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Achievements and ongoing work on biopesticides at ICIPE—Some examples and lessons learnt

  1. 1. Achievements and ongoing work on biopesticides at ICIPE—Some examples and lessons learnt Jean Nguya K. Maniania, Sevgan Subramanian and Sunday Ekesi Regional Experts Workshop on Development, Regulation and Use of Bio- pesticides in East Africa, Nairobi, Kenya, 22–23 May 2014
  2. 2. Presentation outline  Arthropods: challenges to food security and development  Control strategies  Microbial insecticide initiatives in Africa  Microbial biopesticides registered in Kenya  Biopesticides development at icipe  Partnership with private sector  Challenges  SWOT analysis  Acknowledgements
  3. 3. Arthropod pests: challenges to food security and development Thrips: F. occidentalis, T. tabaci, M. sdojesti Fruitflies: Ceratitis capitata, C. cosyra, Bactrocera dorsalis Termites: Macrotermes, Microtermes, Odontotermes Spider mites: Tetranychus evansi, T. urticae Cassava green mite: Mononychellus tanajoa
  4. 4. Diamondback moth: Plutella xylostella African bollworm: Helicoverpa armigera African armyworm: Spodoptea exempta Desert and migratory locust: Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria capito Arthropod pests: challenges to food security and development (Cont.)
  5. 5. Disease vectors: challenges to food security and development Tsetse flies Mosquitoes Ticks
  6. 6. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 53 57 65 67 68 74 78 80 81 82 83 85 86 88 Year No.pesticides DBM resistance to pesticides (Georghiou, 1991)  Export restriction due to MRLs  Chemical residues Control strategies
  7. 7. Drawbacks  Resistance to synthetic chemical pesticides  Toxicity to users, consumers and non-target organisms  Chemical residues  Export restriction
  8. 8. Insect pathogens: alternatives! Virus Bacillus thuringiensis Nematode Fungi Protozoa
  9. 9. Microbial initiatives in Africa Pathogen Host insect Crop/habitat Country Beauveria bassiana Acridids Chilo partellus Cereals, vegetals Maize Cape Verde, Mali Kenya B. brongniartii Cockchafer Sugarcane Reunion Metarhizium sp. Acridids Cereals, vegetation W. Africa, Sudan, S. Africa Tsetse Vegetation Kenya Termites Maize, trees Kenya, Benin, Uganda Thrips Horticulture, cowpea, onion Kenya, Benin, Zimbabwe Fruit flies Mango Kenya Nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) Agrotis ipsilon, Chrysodeixes chalcites, Heliothis armigera, Spodoptera exempta Cotton, sorghum, tomato Cereals Egypt, Zimbabwe Uganda, Botswana Kenya, Tanzania Cherry and Gwynn (2007)
  10. 10. Microbial initiatives in Africa (Cont’d) Pathogen Host insect Crop/habitat Country Nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) Agrotis ipsilon, Chrysodeixes chalcites, Heliothis armigera, Spodoptera exempta Cotton, sorghum, tomato Cereals Egypt, Zimbabwe Uganda, Botswana Kenya, Tanzania Granulovirus (GV) Potato moth Plutella xylostella Sesamia calamistis Potato Brassica Maize Egypt, Tunisia Kenya Benin Oryctes Virus Oryctes monoceros Coconut Tanzania Bacillus thuringiensis S. exempta Filthflies Cereals Latrines Kenya Kenya, Somali, Ethiopia Cherry and Gwynn (2007)
  11. 11. Why????  Despite technically successful projects, microbial insecticides have ever made it to the market place in Africa.  There are only two products which are commercially available: ■ Beauveria bassiana (BroBand); Bacillus thuringiensis (BeTa Pro), Paecilomyces lilacinus (PL Gold), Trichoderma fertile (TrichoPlus) (Becker Underwood, South Africa) ■ Granulovirus (Cryptogran®), River BioScience (Pty), South Africa ■ Metarhizium acridum (Green Muscle) ■ Metarhizium anisopliae isolates and Nuclear Polyhedro virus recently have recently been registered by The Real IPM and Kenya Biologics.
  12. 12. Active Substance Product Name Target(s) Manufacturer/Registrant Bacillus Thuringiensis var. Kurstaki (Btk) BIOLEP WP Wettable Powder Thrips & African bollworm on French beans. Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki Strain DIPEL DF Dry Flowable H. armigera, and Spodoptera exigua) and leaf rollers on Carnations and Roses. Valent Biosciences Corporation.U.S.A. Paecilomyces lilacinus BIO-NEMATON 1.15% WP Wettable Powder Root knot, cyst and burrowing nematodes in Roses; and for the control of root knot nematodes in tomatoes and French beans. T. Stanes and Company Limited India Bacillus thuringiensis var: aizawai sero H7 BACIGUARD 16 WDG Water dispersible Caterpillars on Roses Hubei Kangxin Agroindustry Co Ltd Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis 5-8% BACTICIDE WP Wettable Powder Biolarvicide to control mosquito larvae in breeding sites. Biotech International Ltd. Bacillus Thuringiensis var. Kurstaki (Btk) 9 x BIOLEP WP Wettable Powder thrips & African bollworm on French beans. Biotech International Ltd., India. Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki Strain ABTS-351, 54% DIPEL DF Dry Flowable H. armigera, Spodoptera exigua) and leaf rollers on Carnations and Roses. Valent Biosciences Corporation.U.S.A. Microbial biopesticides registered in Kenya Pest Control Products Board, 2014
  13. 13. Active Substance Product Name Target(s) Manufacturer/Registrant Beauveria bassiana Strain GHA 1.15%w/w BIO-POWER 1.15WP Wettable Powder Aphids & DBM on cabbages T. Stanes and Company Ltd Beauveria bassiana strain GHA 11.3% w/ BOTANIGARD ES Emulsifiable suspension Thrips, aphids and whiteflies) on French beans and snow peas. Laverlam International Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE 78 ACHIEVE Aqueous solution Spider mites Real IPM Company (K) Ltd, Thika Trichoderma asperellum REAL Trichoderma Granule Nematicide for the control of Root knot nematodes (Melogyne spp) in French beans Real IPM Company (K) Ltd, Thika Bacillus subtilis BS-01 1x1010 REAL BACILLUS SUBTILIS fungicide for the control of Powdery Mildew on Roses. Real IPM Company (K) Ltd, Thika Helicoverpa armigera SNPV 8% w/w 2x99 polyhedra HELITEC SC Suspension Concentrate H. armigera on Tomatoes. Kenya Biologics Ltd. Microbial biopesticides registered in Kenya (Cont’d) Pest Control Products Board, 2014
  14. 14. 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 DAT 7 DAT 14 DAT 21 DAT No.thrips/20cuttings Control Metarhizium Insecticide 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 DAT 7 DAT 14 DAT 21 DAT No.thrips/20cuttings Control Metarhizium Insecticide Efficacy of three applications of M. anisopliae ICIPE 69 and insecticide on the no. of Frankliniella occidentalis /20 cuttings on chrysanthemum in screenhouse AdultsLarvae Maniania et al. (2001) Mycopathologia )
  15. 15. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 week 2 weeks 3 weeks 4 weeks 5 weeks Numberofmites/cm2 Week after treatment Con 1 Con 2 Con 3 Fun 1 Fun 2 Acar Efficacy of ICIPE 78 on T. urticae on bean leaves Con 1=untreated control; Con 2= water + Silwet-L77; Con 3: water + Oil + Silwet-L77; Fun 1= fungus in water; Fun2= fungus in emulsifiable formulation; Acar=acaricide (abamectin). Bugeme et al. (2014), Insect Science
  16. 16. Participatory suppression trials with mango growers at Nthagaiya (Kenya) M. anisopliae ICIPE 69: component of fruit fly IPM 0 5 10 15 20 25 Flies/trap/day Mazoferm+Biopesticide Mazoferm Biopesticide Control 1.8 3.7 4.1 8.8 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Flies/trap/day Maz+Biop Maz Biop Control Treatments evaluated 1. Mazoferm+biopesticide 2. Mazoferm alone 3. Biopesticide alone 4. Control Average catches over season Ekesi et al. (2011), BCST
  17. 17. Intervention impact - fruit infestation 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Mazoferm + Biopesticide Mazoferm Biopesticide Control Fruitinfested(%) Ekesi et al. (2011), BCST
  18. 18. Establishment of Pilot Commercial Processing Plant For Food Bait Production for the Management of Fruit Flies in Kenya ■ Under registration ■ Registered Partnership with private sector
  19. 19. International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe) icipe’s Duduville Headquarters Partnership with private sector
  20. 20.  Funding: short-life funded projects catering only for isolation, screening and field trials.  Lack of commitment from the industry to take over the development of microbial products.  Target crops and farmers: ■ Low-value of the crops such as maize, cassava, millet, etc. ■ Resource poor farmers who cannot afford to purchase the product.  Lack of awareness on the existence of microbial insecticides.  Government extensionists not trained in microbial pesticide use but training and experience with chemical insecticides.  Expectations of chemical-like action.  Lack of availability of microbial insecticides. Constraints Education Challenges and opportunities
  21. 21.  Lack of biopesticide regulatory framework.  Biopesticide registration is submitted to the same regulation as chemical pesticides.  Registration by country may represent a big constraint to microbial insecticides development. by country may represent a big constraint to microbial insecticides development. Regulation Challenges and opportunities
  22. 22. Regulations governing biopesticide use
  23. 23. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis (SWOT)  Environmentally benin  Safe to non-target organisms  Compatible with IPM  Generally slow to develop resistance Strengths  Global demand for chemical-free products  Insecticide resistance management  Local production/small companies  IPM programmes  Large diversity of biocontrol agents Opportunities Treatment No. coccinelid beetles Pre-spray Post-spray Control 2.3 3.5 Metarhizium 2.3 3.5 Insecticide 3.8 0 Maniania et al. (2003), Crop Prot. Gelernter et al. (1999), IPM Review
  24. 24.  Slow speed of kill  Short persistence  Highly specific  High cost  Small market  Some must be produced in vivo Weaknesses  Increased regulation  New chemicals  Expectations of chemical-like action.  Non availability to users Threats Gelernter et al. (1999), IPM Review
  25. 25. Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Addressing issues of high costs and persistence Autodissemination devices: Use of host chemical characteristics to disseminate entomopathogens by attracting them to a device
  26. 26. Acknowledgements Dr. P. Nana Dr. F. Nchu Dr. S. Niassy Dr. S. Dimbi Dr. V. Wekesa Mr. D. Mfuti Prof. D. Bugeme

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