Bio-pesticides development, use and regulation in Kenya


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Presented by Virginia Kimani at the Regional Experts Workshop on Development, Regulation and Use of Bio-pesticides in East Africa, Nairobi, Kenya, 22–23 May 2014

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Bio-pesticides development, use and regulation in Kenya

  1. 1. Bio-pesticides development, use and regulation in Kenya Regional Experts Workshop on Development, Regulation and Use of Bio-pesticides in East Africa, Nairobi, Kenya, 22–23 May 2014 Virginia Kimani
  2. 2. Outline  Introduction  Definitions  Policy  Legislation  Standards  Use/Registrations  Recommendations  Acknowledgements
  3. 3. Introduction  Bio-pesticides with significant potential in improving the pest and disease control management strategies worldwide and in Kenya.  World Trade estimates ◦ 3 percent, or $1.3 billion, of the $44 billion global crop-protection business, ◦ Growing by 10% per year ◦ Estimates for the Macrobial market 2003 about $190 m ◦ Multinationals currently entering the market with purchases of bio-pesticide small companies
  4. 4. Definitions In the European Union  for example, bio pesticides- have been defined as "a form of pesticide based on micro-organisms or natural products". This definition does not include natural enemies such as predators and parasitoids also called macrobials.
  5. 5. Definitions In the United States,  the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) includes naturally occurring substances that control pests (biochemical pesticides), microorganisms that control pests (microbial pesticides), and plant- incorporated protectants or PIPs" basically GMOS.  This definition does not include macrobials.
  6. 6. Definitions Kenya 1. Bio-chemicals, which are derived from plants (plant extracts) 2. Semio-chemicals 3. Microbials and 4. Macrobials or natural enemies.
  7. 7. Policy on bio-pesticides  No specific policy but related are: ◦ The Developing National Agrochemicals Policy ◦ at initial stages(stakeholders workshop- today) ◦ Also referred to a the Pest Control Products Policy ◦ a draft bill on Fertilizers and Soil Conditioners ◦ A draft amendment bill to the Fertilizers and Animal Foodstuffs Act
  8. 8. Legislation  Agriculture Act (CAP 318)  Chairmanship of the Kenya Standing Technical Committee for the Imports and Exports of Live organisms  The KEPHIS Act, Cap 512 2013 and Plant Protection Act  Secretariat of the Kenya Standing Committee for the Imports and Exports of Live organisms  A biological import permit issued alongside other permits  Pest Control Products Act  Registration Regulations  Procedures, application forms, summary forms and Dossier  Other Regulations supporting trade
  9. 9.  An application to the Managing Director KEPHIS stating the intention to introduce  KSTCIE advises the importer of the requirements ◦ Application Form ◦ Supply Dossier copies (4)  Dossier is sent to the reviewers (internal and external)  Comments given to the applicant and addressed  Sub-committee meets with Applicant present  Approval or rejection Procedures for introduction of micro and macrobials
  10. 10. MEMBERS OF THE KENYA STANDING TECHNICAL COMMITTEE FOR IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF LIVE ORGANISMS (some are members of the sub-committee) • Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries (MALF) • Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Service (KEPHIS) • Pest Control Products Board (PCPB) • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) • Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) • Department of Veterinary Services(DVS) • Ministry of Health(MoH) • Real IPM Company • Koppert Biological Systems Ltd • Osho Chemical Industries Ltd • MEA Ltd • Kenya Wildlife Service(KWS) • National Museums of Kenya(NMK) • National Environment Management Authority(NEMA) • University of Nairobi(UON) • International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology(ICIPE)
  11. 11. Kenya Standing Technical Committee for Imports and Exports [KSTCIE] Sub Committee Dossier Review Committee Dossier (Report) Review Accepted Rejected Procedure for introduction and risk assessment for Microbials and Macrobials
  12. 12. PCPB Bio-chemicals and Semio- chemicals Efficacy Approval Permit Dossier Review Sample Imports Rejection Sample Delivery Indigenous Efficacy Trials Registration Review of Reports KEPHIS Accepted micro and macrobial R e g i s t r a t I o n r e v i e w
  13. 13. Standards for bio-pesticides No standards per se  Composition of bio-pesticides as submitted to PCPB  East African Organic Standard- “Kilimohai”  stipulates what products may be used in the production process.
  14. 14. Exports of live organisms If an indigenous organism is produced in Kenya and is intended for export, notification should be sent to The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which was instigated on December 29, 1993, and to which Kenya is a signatory.  Use of KEPHIS export procedures to export
  15. 15. Use of bio-pesticides  Extent of use indicated by the registered bio-pesticides  List available at  Estimates hard to compile ◦ Imports figures- PCPB ◦ Indigenous materials for sale – private sales ◦ Indigenous materials for owner use – internal data
  16. 16. Registered microbials 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
  17. 17. Registered macrobials Name of biological control agent Origin Amblyseious cucumeris(predatory mite) (2) Indigenous and imported Amblyseius californicus (predatory mite) (2) Indigenous and imported Aphidius transcaspinus (parasitic wasp) (1) Indigenous Diglyphus isaea (parasitic wasp) (1) Indigenous Encarsia formosa (parasitic wasp) (1) Indigenous Eretmocerus eremicus (parasitic wasp)(1) Imported Phytoseilus persimilis (Predatory mite) (5) Indigenous and imported
  18. 18. Registered bio-chemicals Allyl Sulphides 8.5g/L from Garlic juice (1) Azadirachtin alone (6) Azadirachtin 0.03% w/w (32% neem oil) (1) Biological Cotton seed oil 31% + Garlic extract 23% Biological Cotton seed 40% + Olive oil 20% + Garlic extract 10% Coconut oil 58.5ml/L Neem Oil – 31.5ml/L Sorbic acid – 15.0ml/L Soybean oil – 32.5ml/L (1) Eugenol 3g/L(1) Methyl Eugenol 98.9% (1) Neem oil Clarified Hydrophobic extract of, 70% (1) Organic Vegetable Oil 95% w/v (1) Pyrethrin + Garlic extract (1) Pyrethrins and mixtures (24) Pyrethrins 25 % for formulation purposes (1) Pyrethrins 50% for formulation purposes (1)
  19. 19. Use-some estimated imports 2012 ACTIVE INGREDIENT VOLUME (KG/LIT RES) TONN ES USE Paecilomyces lilacinus 12,000 12 Control of root knot, cyst and burrowing nematodes in Roses; and for the control of root knot nematodes in tomatoes and French beans. Bacillus thuringiensis 8,896 8.896 Control of various pests in vegetable crops Verticillium Lecanii 2,100 2.1 Control of Aphids on Roses and French beans, aphids and whiteflies on Tomatoes.
  20. 20. Trends in use  Macrobials going up ◦ Estimates for flowers farms about 600ha (out of total about 3,700ha)mostly against mites  Microbials going down due to synthetic pyrethroids quick knockdown  Bt gone down very significantly  Trichoderma slightly going up due to lack of fungicides for soil application especially for Fusarium  Biochemicals going up due to legislation on MRLs- neem, prethrum, misc extracts
  21. 21. Non-regulatory stakeholders in the sector Name Role and focus Activities on bio- pesticides Registrants , agents Introduction, trading, commercialisation Training ,promotions Kenya Organic Agricultural Network- KOAN General organic farming concerns Certification of suppliers International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology- ICIPE Research and development of various bio-pesticides Nominated Membership in KSTCIE and research and development Kenya Institute of Organic Farming-KIOF Promoting organic farming Promotion of use non- synthetic chemicals Enkasa College Promoting organic farming and IPM Training on IPM and organic production methods
  22. 22. Recommendations  Policy needed as well as strategy  Legislation focus ◦ Scrutiny of the process, are both stages necessary for macrobials? ◦ Fast tracking especially of indigenous materials  Incentives and promotions of bio-pesticides by government  Capacity building ◦ School curriculum ◦ Post school curriculum  Intentional promotion of indigenous materials especially biologicals, plant extracts
  23. 23. Acknowledgements  Regulators- KEPHIS, PCPB, other Members of the KSTCIE  Private sector- Real IPM, Koppert, Sineria, an agro-input supplier  Researchers- JKUAT, KARI  Bio-Innovate and partners such as NACOSTI  Other stakeholders e.g KOAN
  24. 24. Pesticides and Agricultural Resource Centre Training Research Consultancy Hurlingham Plaza, Argwings Kodhek Road Tel: 254 722 706 528458; 254722 782880 Nairobi Email: Website: www. Thank you